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Test Review: Clinical Assessment of Pragmatics (CAPs)

Today due to popular demand I am reviewing the Clinical Assessment of Pragmatics (CAPs) for children and young adults ages 7 – 18, developed by the Lavi Institute. Readers of this blog are familiar with the fact that I specialize in working with children diagnosed with psychiatric impairments and behavioral and emotional difficulties. They are also aware that I am constantly on the lookout for good quality social communication assessments due to a notorious dearth of good quality instruments in this area of language.

I must admit when I first learned about the existence of CAPs in May 2018, I was definitely interested but quite cautious. Many standardized tests assessing pragmatics and social language contain notable psychometric limitations due to the inclusion of children with social and pragmatic difficulties into the normative sample. This, in turn, tends to overinflate test scores and produce false negatives (a belief that the child does not possess a social communication impairment due to receiving average scores on the test).  Furthermore, tests of pragmatics such as Test of Pragmatic Language -2 (TOPL-2) tend to primarily assess the child’s knowledge of rules of politeness and knowing the right thing to say under a particular set of circumstances and as such are of limited value when it comes to gauging the child’s ability to truly assume perspectives and adequately showcase social cognitive abilities.

The CAPs is a unique test as compared to others with a similar purpose, due to the fact that the testing administration (which can take between 45-60 mins) is conducted exclusively via videos. The CAPs consists of 6 subtests and 3 indices.

Subtests (You can read up more on the comparison of the CAPs subtests HERE ):

Instrumental Performance Appraisal (IPA) subtest (Awareness of Basic Social Routines) is a relatively straightforward subtest which examines the student’s ability to be polite in basic social contexts. The student is asked to first identify “if anything went wrong in the presented scenario?” After that, the student is asked to explain, what went wrong and how s/he knows? Targeted structures include greeting and closure, making requests, responding to gratitude, requesting help, answering phone calls, asking for directions, asking permission, etc.  Goals: can the student discern between appropriate and inappropriate language and then provide a verbal rationale in a coherent and cohesive manner.

Score types: (2) correct identification of problem or lack of thereof + correct justification; (1) correct identification but incorrect rationale; (0) incorrect identification.

Social Context Appraisal (SCA) subtest (Reading Context Cues) requires the student to engage in effective perspective taking (assume mutual vs. individual perspectives) by identifying sarcasm, irony, and figurative language in the presented video scenarios. The student is then asked to provide a coherent and cohesive verbal explanation and effectively justify own response.

Score types: (3) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof + identification of idiom or sarcasm + reference to both characters actions; (2) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof + identification of idiom or sarcasm + reference to one character’s actions; (1) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof but an inability to verbalize the problem in the situation; (0) for incorrect identification.

Paralinguistic Decoding (PD) subtest (Reading Nonverbal Cues) assesses the students’ ability to notice and interpret micro-expressions and nonverbal language.  The aim of this subtest is to have the students grasp what went wrong vs. well in the presented videos, assume mutual perspectives,  as well as verbally justify their responses providing adequate and relevant details.

Score types: (3) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof + explanation of situation + reference to both characters facial expressions and tone of voices; (2) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof + explanation of situation  + reference to one character’s facial expression and tone of voice  (1) correct identification of the problem or lack of thereof but an inability to explain actions and/or nonverbal body language; (0) for incorrect identification.

Instrumental Performance (IP) subtest (Use of Social Routine Language) assesses the student’s ability to use rules of politeness (e.g., make requests, respond to gratitude, answer phone calls, etc.) by providing adequately supportive responses using first-person perspectives relevant to various social situations.

Score types: (2) appropriate introduction + use of supportive statements; (1) appropriate introduction without the use of supportive statements; (0) inappropriate intent of message or use of impolite language 

Affective Expression (AE) subtest (Expressing Emotions) assesses the student’s ability to effectively display empathy, gratitude, praise, apology, etc., towards affected peers in the video scenario. It requires the usage of relevant facial expressions, tone of voice, as well as stating appropriately supportive comments.

Score types: (2) expresses empathy, praise, apology, gratitude, etc. along with supportive statements +appropriate facial and prosodic affect; (1) expresses empathy, praise, apology, gratitude, etc. + appropriate facial and prosodic affect without relevant supportive statements;   (0) provides an approrpiate response but lacks adequate prosody and affect, or message contains inappropriate intent 

Paralinguistic Signals (PS) subtest (Using Nonverbal Cues)assesses the student’s ability to appropriately use facial expressions, gestures, and prosody (act out vs. recognize and interpret facial expression and gestures). This includes showing appropriate expression of empathy, frustration, alarm, excitement, gratitude, etc., exhibiting relevant inflection in prosody as well as showing appropriate to the situation facial expression (vs. having inappropriate message intent, be monotone, have flat affect, etc.)

Score types: (2) appropriately expresses urgency, empathy apology, etc. +exhibits inflections in prosody and shows relevant facial expressions; (1) appropriately expresses urgency, empathy apology, etc. +exhibits inflections in prosody without showing relevant facial expressions  (0)   inappropriate intent of message or monotone prosody. 

Indices (information regarding the student’s pragmatic proficiency):

  1. Pragmatic Judgement (Sum of IPA, SCA & PD scaled scores)
  2. Pragmatic Performance (Sum of IP, AE & PS scaled scores)
  3. Paralinguistic (Sum of PD, AE & PS scaled scores)

Based on the administration of this test the following goals can be formulated for remediation purposes:

Long Term Goal: Student will improve pragmatic abilities for social and academic purposes

Short-Term Objectives: 

  1. The student will verbally identify instances of politeness or impoliteness in presented social routines
  2. The student will provide relevant justifications explaining which aspects of the presented scenarios were appropriate vs. inappropriate
  3. The student will verbally identify sarcasm, irony, and figurative language in presented social scenarios
  4. The student will effectively explain sarcasm, irony, and figurative language in presented social scenarios
  5. The student will verbally interpret micro-expressions and nonverbal body language  (e.g., they feel disgusted; the girl is smirking, the man’s hands are crossed, etc.)
  6. The student will effectively use rules of politeness and provide adequately supportive responses using first-person perspectives pertaining to various aspects of social scenarios
  7. The student will display a range of emotional expressions via the use of relevant facial expressions, tone of voice when providing supporting responses
  8. The student will state appropriately supportive comments regarding relevant social scenarios
  9. The student will use a range of facial expressions, gestures, and relevant prosody pertinent to the provided social scenarios

Furthermore, this test comes with a Contextualized Assessment of Pragmatics Checklist as well as a downloadable  Free Report Template.

Multiple videos posted by the Lavi Institute showcasing individual subtest administration can be accessed by clicking on the above-highlighted links as well as on YouTube.

Psychometrics: the normative sample consisted of 914 individuals out of which 137 (or 15%)  included individuals with atypical language development: ASD: N-18; SLI: N-27; Other (Learning Disabilities): N-92.

Excellent Sensitivity and Specificity Cut Scores (at 1, 1.5 & 2 SD) for clients with ASD ONLY:

Impressions:  To date, I have used this assessment with only 3 students. As such, expect multiple updates of this post as I continue to document how well it suited to identify children with social communication difficulties. Below are my preliminary impressions on how well this test is suited for children with varying pragmatic profiles.

A. Initial Assessment: 8-3-year-old male diagnosed with Autism

The CAPs had captured the student’s display of pragmatic deficits extremely well.  It was able to highlight the student’s relative strengths as well as pervasive pragmatic needs.  Based on the results of the CAPs, I was able to generate relevant pragmatic goals to target with this student in therapy.

B.  Yearly Reassessment: 8-11-year-old diagnosed with Anxiety:

I definitely had some trepidation about how well the CAPs will be able to capture this student’s pragmatic difficulties. This student was initially assessed via the Social Language Development Test-Elementary (SLDTE), which did show deficits in the areas of making inferences, interpersonal negotiation, as well as multiple interpretations of social situations. However, subsequent to his assessment that student did exceptionally well in treatment and had improved exponentially. While I knew that the student was not done with the treatment quite yet, I wasn’t certain if the CAPs was capable of picking up his subtle social pragmatic difficulties. Much to my surprise, the CAPs was effective in highlighting my student’s difficulties on a number of subtests including those pertaining to the effective reading and use of context and nonverbal cues, comprehension  and interpretation of irony and sarcasm, effective support of peers via a variety of statements relevant to social situations (coherent and cohesive sentence formulation given relevant details), as well as use of relevant prosody, facial expressions, tone of voice, and nonverbal cues.

C. Initial Assessment: 11-year-old student with suspected language and literacy deficits 

This was definitely the trickiest assessment subject from my small sample. Based on the collected data I suspected the student had social communication deficits, however, given his relative strengths in a variety of areas and that the fact that no one had previously brought it up, I truly did not anticipate that CAPs will effectively and accurately identify his pragmatic needs. As expected, the student did quite well on that “easier” subtests of the CAPs: (IPA, IP, and AE). However, I was very pleasantly surprised that the CAPs had accurately picked up on the fact that the student presented with difficulty reading both context and nonverbal cues as well as using nonverbal cues to effectively answer the presented questions.

Summary: While my sample of subjects has been quite small to date, I fully intend to continue using the CAPs with students of varying ages with varying diagnoses in order to continue refining profile of students who will significantly benefit from CAPs administration for assessment and reassessment purposes.

MISC:

Current Cost $149

Where to purchase: Effective 1/7/19 on the WPS Publishing website

There you have it! These are my impressions of using the CAPs in my settings. How about you? Have you used this test with any of your students to date? If yes, what are some strengths and limitations you are noticing?

 

 

 

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Editable Report Template and Tutorial for the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy

Today I am introducing my newest report template for the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy.

This 16-page fully editable report template discusses the testing results and includes the following components:

  • Table of testing results
  • Recommendations for using severity ratings of percentile ranks
  • Recommendations of which information to include in the background history section of the report
  • Teacher Interview Samples for Adolescent and Elementary Aged Students
  • Classroom Observations Sample
  • Adaptive behavior section sample
  • Assessment findings
    • All subtests descriptions
    • Extensive descriptions of how to analyze error patterns on all subtests
    • Descriptions of how to analyze scenarios when a student obtains average performance but it contradicts academic functioning.
    • Elaborations regarding specific subtests, weaknesses on which are not as apparent or straightforward (e.g., Nonword Repetition, Following Directions, etc.)
    • Recommendations for supplemental testing when the performance on select subtests (e.g., Social Communication) is within the average range despite glaring weaknesses
    • Extensive error descriptions that can be found on the Reading Fluency subtest
    • Extensive footnotes with clarifying information
    • Links to a variety of TILLS FREE tutorials created by the authors
    • Impressions section formulation
    • Possible ICD-10 diagnoses that can result based on TILLS assessment
    • Accommodations Section
    • Adaptive Recommendations Section
    • Maintaining Factors Section
    • Suggested Therapy Long and Short Term Goals Sampler for
      • Listening Comprehension
      • Oral Communication
      • Social Communication
      • Phonological Awareness
      • Phonics
      • Reading Fluency
      • Reading Comprehension
      • Spelling
      • Writing Conventions
      • Writing Composition
      • Reward System and Rationale
      • Expected duration of treatment
      • Prognosis
      • Therapy Discharge Recommendations

You can access it HERE in my online store.  My review of the TILLS is available HERE 

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New Additions to My Comprehensive Report Tutorials and Templates

I have previously written regarding my line of products on the topic of: “Comprehensive Report Tutorials“.  I had already added a number of editable comprehensive report templates to my online store.

These templates summarize popular speech-language pathology tests with meticulous detail. Each editable template will contain:

  • Formal testing results breakdown in the form of a table
  • A detailed overview of each subtest including a variety of hypotheses behind the student errors
  • Summary of the students perceived deficits on the test and their correlation with language/literacy based deficits
  • Long-term goals and detailed short-term’s objectives

Image result for Speech language Test manualsBelow is a select list of templates which are already available:

Related imageAvailable templates to date:

Continue reading New Additions to My Comprehensive Report Tutorials and Templates

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What Makes an Independent Speech-Language-Literacy Evaluation a GOOD Evaluation?

Image result for Independent Educational EvaluationThree years ago I wrote a blog post entitled: “Special Education Disputes and Comprehensive Language Testing: What Parents, Attorneys, and Advocates Need to Know“. In it, I used  4 very different scenarios to illustrate the importance of comprehensive language evaluations for children with subtle language and learning needs.  Today I would like to expound more on that post in order to explain, what actually constitutes a good independent comprehensive assessment.

Independent evaluations, whether educational, psychological, speech and language, etc., are typically performed with a particular purpose in mind. That purpose is not to simply document the student’s strengths and needs but also to explicitly advise on solid goals and objectives or a strong treatment plan so the child could improve abilities in the affected areas of functioning.

Image result for all children can learnFor example, psychological evaluations do not simply determine the child’s full-scale IQ. Depending on the breakdown of the child’s scores, they help educators with planning for the child’s educational needs. To illustrate, let’s say that an IQ testing determined that the child is functioning in the below average range with significantly lower scores in the areas of working memory and processing speed.  Given this information professionals working with the child in the classroom and in the therapy room can plan accordingly in terms of designing an appropriate intervention which takes into the consideration the child’s cognitive challenges.

Image result for functionalSimilarly, let’s say an educational/learning testing had determined that the child exhibits difficulties in the areas of phonics, word reading, reading fluency, etc.   Such information is hugely helpful in assisting the child to receive additional reading intervention services with a focus on improving the affected areas of difficulty.

In other words, it is not nearly enough to state in the body of the report, what is wrong with the child, rather it is important to make functional recommendations on what can be done with a child in order to make the child better.

Now here it is very important to understand that accommodations and modifications, while extremely helpful for all children with learning needs, are simply not going to be as functional as actual targeted intervention goals in the affected areas, be it reading, writing, listening comprehension, etc.

Independent evaluations need to make concrete recommendation suggestions regarding best remediation practices for the child. They need to contain goals that other professionals can follow. Without this component, independent evaluations have highly limited value. Here is an example which illustrates a limited value of one such report.

Several years ago I was asked to do a comprehensive language and literacy evaluation on a fifth-grade student who was functionally illiterate. The student had already underway and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, which surprisingly enough did not draw any conclusion regarding the student’s abilities.

The neuropsychologist found that the student had an average IQ and learning difficulties across the board in numerous tested areas. Because of these findings, the neuropsychologist chose to ‘blame’ the student’s deficits on ADHD and stated that he is unable to diagnose a student with a learning disability because there were no score discrepancies on educational testing (not a scientifically backed argument).

Image result for valueNow, what is the value of such an assessment? This child’s parents have spent thousands of dollars on this assessment but in the end, they had absolutely nothing to show for it! The assessment had literally found nothing useful because the submission of such an assessment to the school setting would not have resulted in an altered and beneficial program placement for this child.

So what are the components of a good comprehensive independent evaluation? For the purpose of this particular question, I’ll stick to the subject of language and literacy evaluations, which are in my purview.

Here are the sections I include in a typical independent comprehensive language and literacy report for school-age clients. Make sure to click on the multicolored/highlighted words to learn more details via relevant past posts pertaining to this topic.

Formal Testing Results

  • This section includes the tables of all the standardized testing administered to the child

Background Information

  • This section comprehensively discusses the child’s history to date. It summarizes in meticulous detail prenatal perinatal and postnatal histories, developmental milestones acquisition, relevant medical and psychiatric histories, as well as a compilation of information regarding all previous assessments and interventions to date. This is particularly important for cases involving a change in school placement. After all, if the child had received extensive interventions in a particular school setting which were found to be ineffective to date, it is a strong indication that a different school placement may be warranted.

School Visit

  • This section is hugely important for the determination of the child’s functioning in school setting. It documents an observation one hour in length, preformed to determine whether the child is receiving free and appropriate education in school setting (whether the child is appropriately receiving relevant therapies/schooling).
    • School Visit Impressions
      • All school visits need to include a report section which discusses the observers impressions of the program, as well as their suitability to the child’s educational needs.

Adaptive Behavior

  • This section documents the child’s social communication abilities as displayed throughout testing. Was the child calm or distractible, but did the child display any socially awkward behaviors, did the child display any refusal behaviors, was there any odd conversational exchanges, did it take the child too long to answer questions, with the child displaying any word finding difficulties when speaking? All of these observations are documented in that section as a precursor to both formal as well as clinical social communication testing (see below)

Peripheral Oral Motor Exam

  • Here any orofacial anomalies get documented if needed

Voice, Fluency, Resonance and Prosody

  • This section discusses any deviations in the above, and/or documents the presence of typical functioning as commensurate with age.

Articulation and Phonology

  • Here I document the presence of typical or atypical speech patterns

Auditory Function

  • This is a section which discusses previous audiological findings, history of hearing deficits (if present), as well as overall impressions of child’s hearing throughout the assessment.

Methods of Assessment

Testing Protocols 

  • A list of all the formal tests used during the assessment

Language Processing and Listening Comprehension:

  • Detailed findings of both formal and clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to process and comprehend language

Expressive Language and Metalinguistic Abilities:

  • Detailed findings of both formal and clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to verbally express self via the effective/ineffective ability to manipulate words and sentences

Discourse Analysis

  • Detailed findings of clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to produce age level narratives

Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, and Verbal Reasoning:

  • This section documents formal testing results of problem-solving testing

Social Communication Abilities

Reading Assessment

  • This extensive section includes the details of both formal as well as clinical reading testing including information on the child’s phonemic awareness abilities, decoding abilities, reading fluency and reading comprehension, summarization of read information, etc.

Written Assessment

  • This section contains results of formal and clinical writing assessments including spelling as well as writing composition

IMPRESSIONS

  • At this juncture I am ready to summarize the results of my assessment findings in detail. Here I discuss the severity of the impairment as well as list the areas in which deficits have been noted.

ICD-10 Diagnoses

  • Here I list relevant to the assessment diagnoses which were revealed by the conclusion of testing

CLASSROOM PLACEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS:

  • If necessary, this section discusses recommendations for alternative classroom placement. Here I include information regarding the class size, what additional therapies the child may need to receive, the need for additional classification/services, etc.

Instructional Accommodations to Improve Information Processing

  • Here I discuss my observations pertaining to accommodations which may be beneficial to the child in the school setting

ACCOMMODATIONS VS. REMEDIATION:

  • Here, I discuss the importance of providing direct remediation services versus mere accommodations and modifications alone

Knowledge Retention Recommendations:

  • This section may also be merited at times especially with severely impaired children who may not be able to process information presented to them in longer sentences

Adaptive Recommendations:

  • This section requires what adaptive modifications with respect to the child’s physical space, session materials, etc. may be needed in order for the child to succeed

Maintaining Factors (factors contributing to the maintenance of linguistic deficits)Image result for worse

  • Cognitive
  • Sensorimotor
  • Psychosocial
  • Linguistic

SUGGESTED THERAPY GOALS

  • As mentioned before this is a hugely important section which details the students long term as well as short-term goals which were derived based on the presence of deficit areas as documented throughout the assessment report

Reward system and rationale:

  • This may be a particularly important section for students with the greater degree of impairment as here we may be able to document what type of reward/reinforcements (intrinsic/extrinsic) work to for the student to motivate him/her to complete the assessment
  • If possible, an internal and social system of reward for targeted skill achievement (fostering, intrinsic motivation to take pride in own accomplishments) is strongly recommended

Goal Termination

  • Here I discuss the expectations for goal termination. I typically recommend a contingency of 90% or above accuracy marker over a period of 3 consecutive sessions

Expected duration of treatment

  • While it is often impossible to predict the duration of treatment, certain educated guesses may be taken to determine therapy length. This is frequently determined based on how rapidly the student progresses in therapy, the extent of parental involvement as evidenced or homework as well as carryover activities and exercises at home, any additional private therapy services as well as any additional school therapy services and support (e.g., reading instruction)

Image result for prognosisPrognosis

  • Here, once again depending on the extent of severity of the students deficits, a statement of prognosis may be made (e.g., “Good but cautious due to the above maintaining factors”)

Therapy Discharge:

  • Contingent on a successful reassessment of target deficit areas.

Appendices

  • This is a section where I provide any pertinent to the assessment documents such as the results of the prescriptive spelling test (e.g., SPELL-2) or a synopsis of a particular narrative (e.g., Dr. De Soto by William Steig) so that assessment readers could compare the student’s narrative production with expected production

So now that you know, what sections I include in my independent comprehensive language and literacy evaluations, I’d love to know if there are other sections/areas that you including yours? Post your thoughts and suggestions in the comments section below

Related Posts:

  1. Special Education Disputes and Comprehensive Language Testing: What Parents, Attorneys, and Advocates Need to Know
  2. On the Limitations of Using Vocabulary Tests with School-Aged Students
  3. Updated: What Does “Their Social Skills Are Just Fine” Really Means When it Comes to Children with Language Impairment
  4. Why Developmental History Matters: On the Importance of Background Information in Speech-Language Assessments
  5. The Importance of Narrative Assessments in Speech-Language Pathology (Revised)
  6. Analyzing Discourse Abilities of Adolescents via Peer Conflict Resolution (PCR) tasks
  7. What do Auditory Memory Deficits Indicate in the Presence of Average General Language Scores?
  8. Analyzing Narratives of School-Aged Children
  9. Adolescent Assessments in Action: Informal Reading Evaluation
  10. Dear Reading Specialist, May I Ask You a Few Questions? 
  11. Test Review of CELF-5 Metalinguistics: What SLPs Need to Know
  12. Do Our Therapy Goals Make Sense or How to Create Functional Language Intervention Targets
  13. Social Communication and Describing Skills: What is the Connection? 
  14. Recommendations for Assessing Language Abilities of Verbal Children with Down Syndrome (DS)
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Clinical Assessment of Elementary-Aged Students Writing Abilities : Suggestions for SLPs

Image result for child writingRecently I wrote a blog post regarding how SLPs can qualitatively assess writing abilities of adolescent learners. Today due to popular demand, I am offering suggestions regarding how SLPs can assess writing abilities of early-elementary-aged students with suspected learning and literacy deficits. For the purpose of this post, I will focus on assessing writing of second-grade students since by second-grade students are expected to begin producing simple written compositions several sentences in length (CCSS).

So how can we analyze the writing samples of young learners? For starters, it is important to know what the typical writing expectations look like for 2nd-grade students. Here’s is a sampling of typical expectations for second graders as per several sources (e.g., CCSS, Reading Rockets, Time4Writing, etc.)

  • With respect to penmanship, students are expected to write legibly.
  • With respect to grammar, students are expected to identify and correctly use basic parts of speech such as nouns and verbs.
  • With respect to sentence structure students are expected to distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences as well as use correct subject/verb/noun/pronoun agreements and correct verb tenses in simple and compound sentences.
  • With respect to punctuation, students are expected to use periods correctly at the end of sentences. They are expected to use commas in sentences with dates and items in a series.
  • With respect to capitalization, students are expected to capitalize proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences, letter salutations, months and days of the week, as well as titles and initials of people.
  • With respect to spelling, students are expected to spell CVC (e.g., tap), CVCe (e.g., tape), as well as CCVC words (e.g., trap), high frequency regular and irregular spelled words (e.g., were, said, why, etc),  basic inflectional endings (e.g., –ed, -ing, -s, etc), as well as to recognize select orthographic patterns and rules (e.g., when to spell /k/ or /c/ in CVC and CVCe word, how to drop one vowel (e.g., /y/) and replace it with another /i/, etc.)

Now let’s apply the above expectations to a writing sample of a 2nd-grade student whose parents are concerned with her writing abilities in addition to other language and learning concerns. This student was provided with a  typical second grade writing prompt: “Imagine you are going to the North Pole. How are you going to get there? What would you bring with you? You have 15 minutes to write your story. Please make your story at least 4 sentences long.

The following is the transcribed story produced by her. “I am going in the north pole. I am going to bring food my mom toy’s stoft (stuffed) animals. I am so icsited (excited). So we are going in a box. We are going to go done (down) the stars (stairs) with the box and wate (wait) intile (until) the male (mail) is hear (here).”

Analysis: The student’s written composition content (thought formulation and elaboration) was judged to be impaired for her grade level.  According to the CCSS, 2d grade students are expected to ‘”write narratives in which recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.” However, the above narrative sample by no means satisfies this requirement.  The student’s writing was excessively misspelled, as well as lacked organization and clarity of message.  While portions of her narrative appropriately addressed the question with respect to whom and what she was going to bring on her travels, her narrative quickly lost coherence by her 4th sentence, when she wrote: “So we are going in a box” with further elaborations regarding what she meant by that sentence.  Second-grade students are expected to engage in basic editing and revision of their work. This student only took four minutes to compose the above-written sample and as such had more than adequate amount of time to review the question as well as her response for spelling and punctuation errors as well as for clarity of message, which she did not do. Furthermore, despite being provided with a written prompt which contained the correct capitalization of a place: “North Pole”, the student was not observed to capitalize it in her writing, which indicates ongoing executive function difficulties with the respect to proofreading and attention to details.  

Impressions: Clinical assessment of the student’s writing revealed difficulties in the areas of spelling, capitalization, message clarity as well as lack of basic proofreading and editing, which require therapeutic intervention.   

Now let us select a few writing goals for this student.

Long-Term Goals:  Student will improve her writing abilities for academic purposes.

  • Short-Term Goals
  1. Student will label parts of speech (e.g., adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc.)  in compound sentences.
  2. Student will use declarative and interrogative sentence types for story composition purposes
  3. Student will correctly use past, present, and future verb tenses during writing tasks.
  4. Student will use basic punctuation at the sentence level (e.g., commas, periods, and apostrophes in singular possessives, etc.).
  5. Student will use basic capitalization at the sentence level (e.g., capitalize proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences, months and days of the week, etc.).
  6. Student will proofread her work via reading aloud for clarity
  7. Student will edit her work for correct grammar, punctuation, and capitalization

Notice the above does not contain any spelling goals. That is because given the complexity of her spelling profile I prefer to tackle her spelling needs in a separate post, which discusses spelling development, assessment, as well as intervention recommendations for students with spelling deficits.

There you have it. A quick and easy qualitative writing assessment for elementary-aged students which can help determine the extent of the student’s writing difficulties as well as establish a few writing remediation targets for intervention purposes.

Using a different type of writing assessment with your students? Please share the details below so we can all benefit from each others knowledge of assessment strategies.

 

 

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New Products for the 2017 Academic School Year for SLPs

Image result for back to schoolSeptember is quickly approaching and  school-based speech language pathologists (SLPs) are preparing to go back to work. Many of them are looking to update their arsenal of speech and language materials for the upcoming academic school year.

With that in mind, I wanted to update my readers regarding all the new products I have recently created with a focus on assessment and treatment in speech language pathology.

My most recent product Assessment of Adolescents with Language and Literacy Impairments in Speech Language Pathology  is a 130-slide pdf download which discusses how to effectively select assessment materials in order to conduct comprehensive evaluations of adolescents with suspected language and literacy disorders. It contains embedded links to ALL the books and research articles used in the development of this product.

Effective Reading Instruction Strategies for Intellectually Impaired Students is a 50-slide downloadable presentation in pdf format which describes how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) trained in assessment and intervention of literacy disorders (reading, spelling, and writing) can teach phonological awareness, phonics, as well as reading fluency skills to children with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities. It reviews the research on reading interventions conducted with children with intellectual disabilities, lists components of effective reading instruction as well as explains how to incorporate components of reading instruction into language therapy sessions.

Dysgraphia Checklist for School-Aged Children helps to identify the students’ specific written language deficits who may require further assessment and treatment services to improve their written abilities.

Processing Disorders: Controversial Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment is a 28-slide downloadable pdf presentation which provides an introduction to processing disorders.  It describes the diversity of ‘APD’ symptoms as well as explains the current controversies pertaining to the validity of the ‘APD’ diagnosis.  It also discusses how the label “processing difficulties” often masks true language and learning deficits in students which require appropriate language and literacy assessment and targeted intervention services.

Checklist for Identification of Speech Language Disorders in Bilingual and Multicultural Children was created to assist Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) and Teachers in the decision-making process of how to appropriately identify bilingual and multicultural children who present with speech-language delay/deficits (vs. a language difference), for the purpose of initiating a formal speech-language-literacy evaluation.  The goal is to ensure that educational professionals are appropriately identifying bilingual children for assessment and service provision due to legitimate speech language deficits/concerns, and are not over-identifying students because they speak multiple languages or because they come from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

Comprehensive Assessment and Treatment of Literacy Disorders in Speech-Language Pathology is a 125 slide presentation which describes how speech-language pathologists can effectively assess and treat children with literacy disorders, (reading, spelling, and writing deficits including dyslexia) from preschool through adolescence.  It explains the impact of language disorders on literacy development, lists formal and informal assessment instruments and procedures, as well as describes the importance of assessing higher order language skills for literacy purposes. It reviews components of effective reading instruction including phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, vocabulary awareness,  morphological awareness, as well as reading fluency and comprehension. Finally, it provides recommendations on how components of effective reading instruction can be cohesively integrated into speech-language therapy sessions in order to improve literacy abilities of children with language disorders and learning disabilities.

Improving critical thinking via picture booksImproving Critical Thinking Skills via Picture Books in Children with Language Disorders is a partial 30-slide presentation which discusses effective instructional strategies for teaching language disordered children critical thinking skills via the use of picture books utilizing both the Original (1956) and Revised (2001) Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain which encompasses the (R) categories of remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating.

from wordless books to reading From Wordless Picture Books to Reading Instruction: Effective Strategies for SLPs Working with Intellectually Impaired Students is a full 92 slide presentation which discusses how to address the development of critical thinking skills through a variety of picture books  utilizing the framework outlined in Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain which encompasses the categories of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation in children with intellectual impairments. It shares a number of similarities with the above product as it also reviews components of effective reading instruction for children with language and intellectual disabilities as well as provides recommendations on how to integrate reading instruction effectively into speech-language therapy sessions.

Best Practices in Bilingual LiteracyBest Practices in Bilingual Literacy Assessments and Interventions is a 105 slide presentation which focuses on how bilingual speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can effectively assess and intervene with simultaneously bilingual and multicultural children (with stronger academic English language skills) diagnosed with linguistically-based literacy impairments. Topics include components of effective literacy assessments for simultaneously bilingual children (with stronger English abilities), best instructional literacy practices, translanguaging support strategies, critical questions relevant to the provision of effective interventions, as well as use of accommodations, modifications and compensatory strategies for improvement of bilingual students’ performance in social and academic settings.

Comprehensive Literacy Checklist For School-Aged Children was created to assist Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) in the decision-making process of how to identify deficit areas and select assessment instruments to prioritize a literacy assessment for school aged children. The goal is to eliminate administration of unnecessary or irrelevant tests and focus on the administration of instruments directly targeting the specific areas of difficulty that the student presents with.

You can find these and other products in my online store (HERE). Wishing all of you a highly successful and rewarding school year!

Image result for happy school year

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Adolescent Assessments in Action: Informal Reading Evaluation

Image result for adolescentsIn the past several years, due to an influx of adolescent students with language and learning difficulties on my caseload, I have begun to research in depth aspects of adolescent language development, assessment, and intervention.

While a number of standardized assessments are available to test various components of adolescent language from syntax and semantics to problem-solving and social communication, etc. in my experience with this age group, frequently, the informal assessments (vs. the standardized tests)which do a far better job of teasing out language difficulties in adolescents.

Today I wanted to write about the importance of performing an informal reading assessment as part of select* adolescent language and literacy evaluations.

There are a number of standardized tests on the market, which presently assess reading. However, not all of them by far are as functional as many clinicians would like them to be. To illustrate, one popular reading assessment is the Gray Oral Reading Tests-5 (GORT-5).  It assesses the student’s rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension abilities. While it’s a useful test to possess in one’s assessment toolbox, it is not without its limitations. In my experience assessing adolescent students with literacy deficits, many can pass this test with average scores, yet still present with pervasive reading comprehension difficulties in the school setting. As such, as part of the assessment process, I like to administer informal reading assessments to students who pass the standardized reading tests (e.g., GORT-5),  in order to ensure that the student does not possess any reading deficits at the grade  text level.

So how do I informally assess reading abilities of struggling adolescent learners?

First, I select one-page long grade level/below grade level text. I ask the student in question to read that text, and time the first minute of their reading in order to analyze the oral reading fluency or words correctly read per minute (wcpm).

Content Reading: ScienceFor this purpose, I often use the books from the Continental Press series entitled: Reading Comprehension for Social Studies & Science.   Texts for grades 5 – 7 of the series are perfect for assessment of struggling adolescent readers. In some cases using a below grade level text allows me to starkly illustrate the extent of the student’s reading difficulties. Below is an example of one of such informal rading assessments in action.

INFORMAL READING ASSESSMENT: 8th Grade Male   

Content Reading: Social ScienceAn informal reading assessment was administered to TS, a 15-5-year-old male, on a supplementary basis in order to further analyze his reading abilities. Given the fact that TS was reported to present with grade-level reading difficulties, the examiner gave TS a 7th-grade text by Continental Press. TS was asked to read aloud the 7 paragraph long text, and then answer factual and inferential questions, summarize the presented information, define select context embedded vocabulary words as well as draw conclusions based on the presented text. (Please note that in order to protect the client’s privacy some portions of the below assessment questions and responses were changed to be deliberately vague).

Image result for reading fluency componentsReading Fluency: TS’s reading fluency (automaticity, prosody, accuracy and speed, expression, intonation, and phrasing) during the reading task was marked by monotone vocal quality, awkward word stress, imprecise articulatory contacts, false-starts, self–revisions, awkward mid-sentential pauses, limited pausing for punctuation, as well as  misreadings and word substitutions, all of which resulted in an impaired reading prosody.

With respect to specific errors, TS was observed to occasionally add word fillers to text (e.g., and, a, etc.), change morphological endings of select words (e.g., read /elasticity/ as /elastic/, etc.) as well as substitute similar looking words (e.g., from/for; those/these, etc.) during reading.  He occasionally placed stress on the first vs. second syllable in disyllabic words, which resulted in distorted word productions (e.g., products, residual, upward, etc.), as well as inserted extra words into text (e.g., read: “until pressure inside the earth starts to build again” as “until pressure inside the earth starts to build up again”). He also began reading a number of his sentences with false starts (e.g., started reading the word “drinking” as ‘drunk’, etc.) and as a result was observed to make a number of self-corrections during reading.

During reading TS demonstrated adequate tracking movements for text scanning as well as use of context to aid his decoding.  For example, TS was observed to read the phonetic spelling of select unfamiliar words in parenthesis (e.g., equilibrium) and then read them correctly in subsequent sentences. However, he exhibited limited use of metalinguistic strategies and did not always self-correct misread words; dispute the fact that they did not always make sense in the context of the read sentences.

TS’s oral reading rate during today’s reading was judged to be reduced for his age/grade levels. An average 8th grader is expected to have an oral reading rate between 145 and 160 words per minute. In contrast, TS was only able to read 114 words per minute. However, it is important to note that recent research on reading fluency has indicated that as early as by 4th grade reading faster than 90 wcpm will not generate increases in comprehension for struggling readers.  Consequently, TS’s current reading rate of off 114 words per minute was judged to be adequate for reading purposes. Furthermore, given the fact that TS’s reading comprehension is already compromised at this rate (see below for further details) rather than making a recommendation to increase his reading rate further, it is instead recommended that intervention focuses on slowing TS’s rate via relevant strategies as well as improving his reading comprehension abilities. Strategies should focus on increasing his opportunities to learn domain knowledge via use of informational texts; purposeful selection of texts to promote knowledge acquisition and gain of expertise in different domains; teaching morphemic as well as semantic feature analyses (to expand upon already robust vocabulary), increasing discourse and critical thinking with respect to informational text, as well as use of graphic organizers to teach text structure and conceptual frameworks.

Verbal Text Summary: TS’s text summary following his reading was very abbreviated, simplified, and confusing. When asked: “What was this text about?” Rather than stating the main idea, TS nonspecifically provided several vague details and was unable to elaborate further. When asked: “Do you think you can summarize this story for me from beginning to the end?” TS produced the two disjointed statements, which did not adequately address the presented question When asked: What is the main idea of this text.” TS vaguely responded: “Science,” which was the broad topic rather than the main idea of the story.

Image result for vocabularyText Vocabulary Comprehension:

After that, TS was asked a number of questions regarding story vocabulary.  The first word presented to him was “equilibrium”.  When asked: “What does ‘equilibrium’ mean?” TS first incorrectly responded: “temperature”. Then when prompted: “Anything else?” TS correctly replied: “balance.” He was then asked to provide some examples of how nature leans towards equilibrium from the story. TS nonspecifically produced: “Ah, gravity.” When asked to explain how gravity contributes to the process of equilibrium TS again nonspecifically replied: “gravity is part of the planet”, and could not elaborate further. TS was then asked to define another word from the text provided to him in a sentence: “Scientists believe that this is residual heat remaining from the beginnings of the solar system.” What is the meaning of the word: “residual?” TS correctly identified: “remaining.” Then the examiner asked him to define the term found in the last paragraph of the text: “What is thermal equilibrium?” TS nonspecifically responded: “a balance of temperature”, and was unable to elaborate further.

Image result for reading comprehensionReading Comprehension (with/out text access):

TS was also asked to respond to a number of factual text questions without the benefit of visual support. However, he presented with significant difficulty recalling text details. TS was asked: When asked, “Why did this story mention ____? What did they have to do with ____?” TS responded nonspecifically, “______.” When prompted to tell more, TS produced a rambling response which did not adequately address the presented question. When asked: “Why did the text talk about bungee jumpers? How are they connected to it?” TS stated, “I am ah, not sure really.” 

Finally, TS was provided with a brief worksheet which accompanied the text and asked to complete it given the benefit of written support. While TS’s performance on this task was better, he still achieved only 66% accuracy and was only able to answer 4 out of 6 questions correctly. On this task, TS presented with difficulty identifying the main idea of the third paragraph, even after being provided with multiple choice answers. He also presented with difficulty correctly responding to the question pertaining to the meaning of the last paragraph.

Image result for impressionsImpressions: Informal below grade-level reading comprehension assessment reading revealed that TS presents with a number of reading related difficulties.   TS’s reading fluency was marked by monotone vocal quality, awkward word stress, imprecise articulatory contacts, false-starts, self–revisions, awkward mid-sentential pauses, limited pausing for punctuation, as well as misreadings and word substitutions, all of which resulted in an impaired reading prosody. TS’s understanding as well as his verbal summary of the presented text was immature for his age and was characterized by impaired gestalt processing of information resulting in an ineffective and confusing summarization.  While TS’s text-based vocabulary knowledge was deemed to be grossly adequate for his age, his reading comprehension abilities were judged to be impaired for his age. Therapeutic intervention is strongly recommended to improve TS’s reading abilities. (See Impressions and Recommendations sections for further details).

There you have it! This is just one of many different types of informal reading assessments, which I occasionally conduct with adolescents who attain average scores on reading fluency and reading comprehension tests such as the GORT-5 or the Test of Reading Comprehension -4 (TORC-4), but still present with pervasive reading difficulties working with grade level text.

You can find more information on the topic of adolescent assessments (including other comprehensive informal write-up examples) in this recently developed product entitled: Assessment of Adolescents with Language and Literacy Impairments in Speech Language Pathology currently available in my online store.

What about you? What type of informal tasks and materials are you using to assess your adolescent students’ reading abilities and why do you like using them?

Helpful Smart Speech Therapy Adolescent Assessment Resources:

 

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Early Intervention Evaluations PART III: Assessing Children Under 2 Years of Age

In this post, I am continuing my series of articles on speech and language assessments of children under 3 years of age. My first installment in this series offered suggestions regarding what information to include in general speech-language assessments for this age group, while my second post specifically discussed assessments of toddlers with suspected motor speech disorders.

Today, I’d like to describe what information I tend to include in reports for children ~16-18 months of age.  As I mentioned in my previous posts, the bulk of children I assess under the age of 3, are typically aged 30 months or older. However, a relatively small number of children are brought in for an assessment around an 18-month mark, which is the age group that I would like to discuss today.

Typically,  these children are brought in due to a lack of or minimal speech-language production. Interestingly enough, based on the feedback of colleagues, this group is surprisingly hard to report on. While all SLPs will readily state that 18-month-old children are expected to have a verbal vocabulary of at least 50 words and begin to combine them into two-word utterances (e.g., ‘daddy eat’). When prompted: “Well, what else should my child be capable of?” many SLPs draw a blank regarding what else to say to parents on the spot.

Image result for assessmentAs mentioned in my previous post on assessment of children under 3, the following sections should be an integral part of every early intervention speech-language assessment:

  • Background History
  • Language Development and Use  (Free Questionnaires)
  • Adaptive Behavior
  • Play Assessment (Westby, 2000) (Westby Play Scale-Revised Link)
  • Auditory Function
  • Oral Motor Exam
  • Feeding and Swallowing
  • Vocal Parameters
  • Fluency and Resonance
  • Articulation and Phonology
  • Receptive Language
  • Expressive Language
  • Social Emotional Development
  • Pragmatic Language
  • Impressions
  • Recommendations
  • Suggested Therapy Goals
  • References (if pertinent to a particular report)

In my two previous posts, I’ve also offered examples of select section write-ups (e.g., receptive, expressive phonology, etc.). Below a would like to offer a few more for this age group. Below is an example of a write-up on an 18-month-old bilingual child with a very limited verbal output.

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE:

L’s receptive language skills were solid at 8 months of age (as per clinical observations and REEL-3 findings) which is significantly below age-expectancy for a child her age (18 months). During the assessment L received credit for appropriately reacting to prohibitive verbalizations (e.g., “No”, “Stop”), attending to speaker when her name was spoken, performing a routine activity upon request (when combined with gestures), looking at familiar object when named, finding the aforementioned familiar object when not in sight, as well as pointing to select body parts on Mrs. L and self (though identification on self was limited).  L is also reported to be able to respond to yes/no questions by head nods and shakes.

However, during the assessment L was unable to consistently follow 1 and 2 step directions without gestural cues, understand and perform simple actions per clinician’s request, select objects from a group of 3-5 items given a verbal command, select familiar puzzle pieces from a visual field of 2 choices, understand simple ‘wh questions (e.g., “what?”, “where?”), point to objects or pictures when named, identify simple pictures of objects in book, or display the knowledge and understanding of age appropriate content, function and early concept words (in either Russian or English) as is appropriate for a child her age.   

EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE and ARTICULATION

L’s expressive language skills were judged to be solid at 7 months of age (as per clinical observations and REEL-3 findings), which is significantly below age-expectancy for a child her age (18 months). L was observed to spontaneously use proto-imperative gestures (eye gaze, reaching, and leading [by hand]), vocalizations, as well waving for the following language functions: requesting, rejecting, regulating own environment as well as providing closure (waving goodbye).

L’s spontaneous vocalizations consisted primarily of reduplicated babbling (with a limited range of phonemes) which is significantly below age-expectancy for a child her age (see below for developmental norms).  During the assessment, L was observed to frequently vocalize “da-da-da”. However, it was unclear whether she was vocalizing to request objects (in Russian “dai” means “give”) due to the fact that she was not observed to consistently vocalize the above solely when requesting items.  Additionally, L was not observed to engage in reciprocal babbling or syllable/word imitation during today’s assessment, which is a concern for a child her age.  When the examiner attempted to engage L in structured imitation tasks by offering and subsequently denying a toy of interest until L attempted to imitate the desired sound, L became easily frustrated and initiated tantrum behavior. During the assessment, L was not observed to imitate any new sounds trialed with her by the examiner.

During today’s assessment, L’s primary means of communication consisted of eye gaze, reaching, crying, gestures, as well as sound and syllable vocalizations.  L’s phonetic inventory consisted of the following consonant sounds: plosives (/p/, /b/ as reported by Mrs. L), alveolars (/t/, /d/ as reported and observed), fricative (/v/ as observed), velar (/g/ as observed), as well as nasal (/n/, and /m/ as observed).   L was also observed to produce two vowels /a/ and a pharyngeal /u/.  L’s phonotactic repertoire was primarily restricted to reported CV(C-consonant; V-vowel) and VCV syllable shapes, which is significantly reduced for a child her age.

According to developmental norms, a child of L’s age (18 months) is expected to produce a wide variety of consonants (e.g., [b, d, m, n, h, w] in initial and [t, h, s] in final position of words) as well as most vowels. (Robb, & Bleile,(1994); Selby, Robb & Gilbert, 2000). During this time the child’s vocabulary size increases to 50+ words at which point children begin to combine these words to produce simple phrases and sentences (as per Russian and English developmental norms).  Additionally, an, 18 months old child is expected to begin monitoring and repairing own utterances, adjusting speech to different listeners, as well as practicing sounds, words, and early sentences. (Clark, adapted by Owens, 2015)

Based on the above guidelines L’s receptive and expressive language, as well as articulation abilities, are judged to be significantly below age expectancy at this time. Speech and language therapy is strongly recommended in order to improve L’s speech and language skills.

Typically when the assessed young children exhibit very limited comprehension and expression, I tend to provide their caregivers with a list of developmental expectations for that specific age group (given the range of a few months) along with recommendations of communication facilitation. Below is an example of such a list, pulled a variety of resources.

Image result for milestonesDevelopmental Milestones expected of a 16-18 months old toddler:

 Attention/Gaze:

  • Make frequent spontaneous eye contact with adults during interactions
  • Turn head to look towards the new voice, when another person begins to talk
  • Make 3-point gaze shifts by 1. looking at a toy in hand, 2. then at an adult, 3. then back to the toy
  • Make 4-point gaze shifts if more than one person is in the room – by looking from a toy in hand to one person, then the other person, then back to the toy,
  • Spontaneously attend to book, activity for 2-3+ minutes without redirection

Reaching and Gestures:

  • Show objects in hand to an adult (without actually giving them)
  • Push away items that aren’t wanted
  • Engage in give and take games when holding objects with an adult
  • Imitate simple gestures such as clapping hands or waving bye-bye
  • Hand an object to an adult to ask for help with it
  • Shake head “no?”

Image result for playPlay Skills/Routines:

  • Attempt to actively explore toys (e.g., push or spin parts of toys, turn toys over, roll them back and forth)
  • Repeat interesting actions with toys (e.g., make a toy produce an unusual noise, then attempt to make the noise again)
  • Imitate simple play activities (adult bangs two blocks together, then child imitates)
  • Use objects on daily basis (e.g., when given a spoon or cup the child attempts to feed himself. When putting on clothes the child begins to lift his arms in anticipation of a shirt going on.)

 Receptive (Listening Skills):

  • Consistently follow 1 and 2 step directions without gestural cues
  • Understand and perform simple actions per request (“sit down” or “come here”) without gestures
  • Select objects from a group of 3 items given a verbal command
  • Select familiar puzzle pieces from a visual field of 2 choices
  • Understand simple ‘wh questions (e.g., “what?”, “where?”)
  • Point to objects or pictures when named
  • Spontaneously and consistently identify simple pictures of objects in book
  • Stop momentarily what he is doing if an adult says “no” in a firm voice
  • Identify 2-3 common everyday objects or body parts when asked

 Expressive (Speaking Skills): 

  • Produce a wide variety of consonants (e.g., [b, d, m, n, h, w] in initial and [t, h, s] in final position of words) as well as most vowels. (Robb, & Bleile,(1994); Selby, Robb & Gilbert, 2000).
  • Have a vocabulary size nearing 50 words (e.g., 35-40)
  • Imitate adult words or vocalizations
  • Attempt to practice sounds and words (Clark, adapted by Owens, 2015)
  • Appropriately label familiar objects (foods, toys, animals)

Related imageMaterials to use with the child to promote language and play:

  • Bubbles
  • Cause and effect toys
  • Toys with a variety of textures (soft toys, plastic toys, cardboard blocks, ridged balls)
  • Toys with multiple actions
  • Toys with special effects: lights, sounds, movement (push and go vehicles)
  • Building and linking toys
  • Toys with multiple parts
  • Balls, cars and trucks, animals, dolls
  • Puzzles
  • Pop-up picture books
  • Toys the child demonstrates an interest in (parents should advise)

Strategies:

  • Reduce distractions (noise, clutter etc)
  • Provide one on one interaction in a structured space (e.g., sitting at the play table or sitting on parent’s lap) to improve attention
  • Offer favorite activities and toys of interest initially before branching out to new materials
  • Offer favorite foods/toys as reinforcers to continue working
  • Offer choices of two toys, then remove one toy and focus interaction with one toy of interest
  • Try to prolong attention to toy for several minutes at a time
  • Change activities frequently, HOWEVER, repeat same activities in cycles over and over again during home practice in order to solidify skills
  • Label objects and actions in the child’s immediate environment
  • Use brief but loud utterances (2-3 words not more) to gain attention and understanding
  • Frequently repeat words in order to ensure understanding of what is said/expected of child
  • Use combination of gestures, signs, words, and pictures to teach new concepts
  • Do not force child to speak if he doesn’t want to rather attempt to facilitate production of gestures/sounds (e.g., use “hand over hand” to show child the desired gesture such as pointing/waving/motioning in order to reduce his/her frustration
  • Use play activities as much as possible to improve child’s ability to follow directions and comprehend language
    • Doll House (with Little People)
    • Garage
    • Farm, etc

Related imageCore vocabulary categories for listening and speaking:

  • Favorite and familiar toys and objects
  • Names of people in the child’s life as well as his own name
  • Pets
  • Favorite or familiar foods
  • Clothing
  • Body parts
  • Names of daily activities and actions (go, fall, drink, eat, walk, wash, open)
  • Recurrence (more)
  • Names of places (bed, outside)
  • Safety words (hot, no, stop, dangerous, hurt, don’t touch, yuck, wait)
  • Condition words (boo-boo, sick/hurt, mad, happy)
  • Early pronouns (me, mine)
  • Social words (hi, bye, please, sorry)
  • Early concepts: in, off, on, out, big, hot, one, up, down, yucky, wet, all done)
  • Yes/no

 Select References:

  • Owens, R. E. (2015). Language development: An introduction (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Rescorla, L. (1989). The Language Development Survey: A screening tool for delayed language in toddlers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 587–599.
  • Rescorla, L., Hadicke-Wiley, M., & Escarce, E. (1993). Epidemiological investigation of expressive language delay
    at age two. First Language, 13, 5–22.
  • Robb, M. P., & Bleile, K. M. (1994). Consonant inventories of young children from 8 to 25 months. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 8, 295-320.
  • Selby, J. C., Robb, M. P., & Gilbert, H. R. (2000). Normal vowel articulations between 15 and 36 months of age. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14, 255-266.

Click HERE for the Early Intervention Evaluations PART IV: Assessing Pragmatic Abilities of Children Under 3

Stay Tuned for the next installment in this series:

  • Early Intervention Evaluations PART V: Assessing Feeding and Swallowing in Children Under Two

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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New Product Giveaway: Comprehensive Literacy Checklist For School-Aged Children

I wanted to start the new year right by giving away a few copies of a new checklist I recently created entitled: “Comprehensive Literacy Checklist For School-Aged Children“.

It was created to assist Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) in the decision-making process of how to identify deficit areas and select assessment instruments to prioritize a literacy assessment for school aged children.

The goal is to eliminate administration of unnecessary or irrelevant tests and focus on the administration of instruments directly targeting the specific areas of difficulty that the student presents with.

*For the purpose of this product, the term “literacy checklist” rather than “dyslexia checklist” is used throughout this document to refer to any deficits in the areas of reading, writing, and spelling that the child may present with in order to identify any possible difficulties the child may present with, in the areas of literacy as well as language.

This checklist can be used for multiple purposes.

1. To identify areas of deficits the child presents with for targeted assessment purposes

2. To highlight areas of strengths (rather than deficits only) the child presents with pre or post intervention

3. To highlight residual deficits for intervention purpose in children already receiving therapy services without further reassessment

Checklist Contents:

  • Page 1 Title
  • Page 2 Directions
  • Pages 3-9 Checklist
  • Page 10 Select Tests of Reading, Spelling, and Writing for School-Aged Children
  • Pages 11-12 Helpful Smart Speech Therapy Materials

Checklist Areas:

  1. AT RISK FAMILY HISTORY
  2. AT RISK DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY
  3. BEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS 
  4. LEARNING DEFICITS   
    1. Memory for Sequences
    2. Vocabulary Knowledge
    3. Narrative Production
    4. Phonological Awareness
    5. Phonics
    6. Morphological Awareness
    7. Reading Fluency
    8. Reading Comprehension
    9. Spelling
    10. Writing Conventions
    11. Writing Composition 
    12. Handwriting

You can find this product in my online store HERE.

Would you like to check it out in action? I’ll be giving away two copies of the checklist in a Rafflecopter Giveaway to two winners.  So enter today to win your own copy!

a Rafflecopter giveaway

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The Frenzied SLPs Jan ’15 Edition: Investing Wisely

meet frenzied slps

I am thrilled to be a part of The Frenzied SLPs, which is a group of talented SLP bloggers and TPT sellers who each month bring you a variety of suggestions on how to simplify the life of the frenzied SLPs.  At the beginning of each year, many of us try to make a variety of resolutions on how to live better. These may involve changes in our personal lifestyles or changes in our work routines and schedules. This month I’d like to talk about investments, namely investments, which can make our work load more manageable.

If your schedule is anything like mine, then you are very heavily inundated with paperwork. Evaluation reports, progress summaries, session notes, lesson plans, presentations, articles, it all piles up until you absolutely dread looking at your planner since it highlights all the looming deadlines and not enough time to complete all the paperwork.

That is why recently I decided to invest in some dictation software. After a bit of research I settled on Dragon Naturally Speaking software, which I installed on my PC at work as well as on my Mac at home. For me it was an investment that definitely paid off within a very short period of time. Almost immediately I started noticing how much faster I was able to complete my reports, reply to emails, as well as write blog posts and articles. I also noticed how much easier revising and editing process was on my eyes.

So what has improved?
Well, I’ve definitely noticed a huge improvement in my productivity.  Even though I wasn’t the slowest typist, dictating became a huge time saver, since now I am able to produce 3x as much  written output in the same period of time.

I also noticed that the use of dictation software allowed me to better organize my thoughts out loud and significantly decrease oral revisions when dictating.

However while dictation software is an excellent investment it needs to be made wisely keeping a few things in mind.

For starters the cost of software may be problematic for some. While Nuance, which is the company that sells the software has a variety of decently priced packages, this software is still not cheap. Buying a wireless Bluetooth headset, a professional package, or the licensing software for several different computers, may further significantly increase the price.

Secondly you do need to train the software especially because we a speech pathologist use a lot of esoteric and specialized language to describe our clients’ assessment and treatment needs. The training period take anywhere from several days to several weeks depending on how quickly you’ll learn to navigate the in’s and out’s of all the commands.

Personally I find the Mac version not as user-friendly as the PC version despite the fact that it does not require the usage of a headset in contrast to the PC version.

However, all in all, for a busy professional inundated with paperwork, this investment truly is a valuable time saver that can significantly reduce the time spent on paperwork as well as the amount of strain and effort you put into report writing and editing.