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Why “good grades” do not automatically rule out “adverse educational impact”

Image result for good grades?As a speech-language pathologist (SLP) working with school-age children, I frequently assess students whose language and literacy abilities adversely impact their academic functioning.   For the parents of school-aged children with suspected language and literacy deficits as well as for the SLPs tasked with screening and evaluating them, the concept of ‘academic impact’ comes up on daily basis. In fact, not a day goes by when I do not see a variation of the following question: “Is there evidence of academic impact?”, being discussed in a variety of Facebook groups dedicated to speech pathology issues.

At first glance, the issue of academic impact appears to be rather straightforward. For example, many SLPs will readily assert that if a child is receiving good grades (A’s and B’s) in the school setting and is not exhibiting any “significant” maladaptive and challenging behaviors, then there is no evidence of adverse academic impact, and screening/evaluation/intervention services are unnecessary.

Unfortunately, things are not as “crystal clear” as they appear. That is because of the relative subjectivity pertaining to the grading practices of the students’ work in the school setting. Now, before you accuse me of inventing a problem where there is none, please hear me out.

In this post, I would like to illustrate how the subjectivity of grading practices can obfuscate the issue of academic impact to such an extent that students with significant language and learning needs may not be identified as being in need of help until it’s far too late – if identified at all.

Related imageLet’s begin with reading, an incredibly complex and deeply misunderstood process, especially in settings which do not utilize scientifically informed practices (e.g., synthetic phonics) when teaching young children to read.  When it comes to the teaching and assessment of reading, it is an absolute Wild West out there! And no one is more familiar with it, than parents of reading impaired children.

One of the first things these parents notice about their children in the early grades is that their reading abilities are highly inconsistent and are not commensurate with those of their peers.  These parents will notice that it takes their kids an extraordinary amount of time to master the alphabetic principle (remember the letters of the alphabet, match letters to sounds, etc.). They will notice that their children have an extraordinarily difficult time blending simple three letter words involving initial and final consonants with a medial vowel (e.g., “nob”). They will complain that their children display inconsistent knowledge of “sight words” from day to day, as well as misread and skip words when reading.

Here is the problem though, unless objective measures are used to test their children’s phonemic awareness and phonics abilities, there is a very strong possibility that these issues will persist well into upper elementary years, completely unnoticed in the school system, given the subjectivity involved in assessing reading mastery.

Indeed, numerous studies highlight the lack of efficacy of build-in assessments in programs such as Fountas and Pinnell, Reading Recovery, as well as the utility of utilizing Running Records, for reading assessment purposes.  My clinical observations of struggling readers in a variety of school settings, as part of the independent evaluation process, certainly support and corroborate available research on the subject. Namely, in many educational disputes, there’s a significant mismatch between teacher claims “S/he is reading at grade level as per (insert subjective method here)”  and observed student’s abilities (child is functionally illiterate) during reading tasks in the classroom. 

Related imageNow, let’s move on to discuss the subjectivity of the weekly spelling test. A number of scientific studies on this subject have shown that spelling instruction needs to be direct, explicit and systematic in order to be effective for struggling learners. When teaching spelling, best instruction practices involve consistently addressing and grouping words according to specific spelling patterns rather than teaching random “grade level” or topically related words. However, in the vast majority of instances, the weekly spelling test continues to consist of random words which are expected to be memorized by students. As a result of these memorization practices, numerous students will attain high marks on spelling tests but will be absolutely unable to correctly spell these words in a variety of writing assignments even a week later.

Image result for children taking a testThe practice of teaching to the test is certainly not restricted to spelling.  I have also seen similar practices pertaining to the subjects of science and social studies, whereas children are provided with specific handouts pertaining to a particular topic to memorize for the test. While this allows these children to perform well on such tests, unfortunately, their topic knowledge remains minimal to nonexistent given the fact that the memorized information will be long forgotten in a period of just a few weeks, if not sooner.

Similarly, science projects and social studies book reports may not even be necessarily completed by the children themselves. Many parents of struggling learners will readily acknowledge the mammoth work they had contributed to such projects just so their children could attain good marks which were worth a significant percentage of the overall class grade.

Many parents of struggling learners will also readily admit their significant involvement in the homework process and how stressful and frustrating it is on the students. They report spending numerous hours each day explaining information, their children’s tears of frustration and rage, significant tantrum behavior, and in some extreme cases even visits to a hospital, subsequent to accidental injuries stemming from challenging behaviors.

Finally, the subjectivity of grading written assignments is another important factor that needs to be explicitly acknowledged. Many parents and professionals tasked with the evaluation of the students’ spontaneous written work will readily confirm that oftentimes the grades some struggling learners receive on written assignments appear to be almost ridiculously overinflated.  Despite seemingly clear rubrics provided to the students explaining the breakdown of points for a particular written composition, many students end up receiving much higher marks than they deserve.  I myself have observed this phenomenon firsthand by reviewing the written work of my clients in private practice following parental complaints of grade inflation.

Related imageWe’re talking essays, blatantly lacking in coherence and cohesion, peppered with run-on and fragmented sentences, lacking subject-verb agreement, and full of grammatical errors, given A- and B+ grades, when the grading rubrics which came with the assignment, clearly indicate that the work is at the best deserving of a C- or a D+ grade.

These are just some of the many reasons why students of all ages with very noticeable language and learning needs, may end up being denied much-needed language and literacy assessments to determine the extent of their difficulties in order to receive targeted assistance.

Further complicating this issue is the fact that even when these students are finally tested in the school setting, due to the relative “mildness”  of their deficits,  coupled with the use of general (vs. targeted), often psychometrically weak tests, a lack of or under-identification of their deficit areas often occurs.

So what can parents and professionals do with this information? For starters, all are encouraged to examine the available information through a critical lens, albeit in different ways. Parents are encouraged to collect the samples of the child’s work (independent writing and spelling, audio samples of their reading, etc.) highlighting the discrepancies between the grades they receive and their actual abilities. They should absolutely request child study team assessments and if they are unsatisfied with the results of those tests they can seek out independent evaluations pertaining to the child’s areas of concern.

Image result for high sensitivity high specificitySimilarly, SLPs are encouraged to review their testing practices to ensure that they accurately reflect the students’ deficit areas. They are also strongly encouraged to review the psychometric properties of the tests they are using to better understand the sensitivity and specificity of these instruments with respect to the appropriate identification of language disorders. Finally, SLPs are strongly encouraged to familiarize themselves with the language and literacy expectations of older students and utilize clinical assessment procedures which reflect more sensitive assessment practices.

Image result for falling dominoesSo the next time someone has concerns regarding the language and literacy abilities of students with seemingly good grades, do not be so hasty in dismissing their worries due to a “lack of academic impact”. Depending on the setting and testing in question,  that impact may be far greater than we know!

Helpful Related Posts: 

  1. Special Education Disputes and Comprehensive Language Testing: What Parents, Attorneys, and Advocates Need to Know
  2. What Makes an Independent Speech-Language-Literacy Evaluation a GOOD Evaluation?
  3. What Research Shows About the Functional Relevance of Standardized Language Tests
  4. Part II: Components of Comprehensive Dyslexia Testing – Phonological Awareness and Word Fluency Assessment
  5. On the Limitations of Using Vocabulary Tests with School-Aged Students
  6. It’s All Due to …Language: How Subtle Symptoms Can Cause Serious Academic Deficits
  7. Dear Reading Specialist, May I Ask You a Few Questions?
  8. Help, My Student has a Huge Score Discrepancy Between Tests and I Don’t Know Why?
  9.  The Reign of the Problematic PLS-5 and the Rise of the Hyperintelligent Potato
  10. Components of Qualitative Writing Assessments: What Exactly are We Trying to Measure?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Editable Report Template and Tutorial for the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy

Today I am introducing my newest report template for the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy.

This 16-page fully editable report template discusses the testing results and includes the following components:

  • Table of testing results
  • Recommendations for using severity ratings of percentile ranks
  • Recommendations of which information to include in the background history section of the report
  • Teacher Interview Samples for Adolescent and Elementary Aged Students
  • Classroom Observations Sample
  • Adaptive behavior section sample
  • Assessment findings
    • All subtests descriptions
    • Extensive descriptions of how to analyze error patterns on all subtests
    • Descriptions of how to analyze scenarios when a student obtains average performance but it contradicts academic functioning.
    • Elaborations regarding specific subtests, weaknesses on which are not as apparent or straightforward (e.g., Nonword Repetition, Following Directions, etc.)
    • Recommendations for supplemental testing when the performance on select subtests (e.g., Social Communication) is within the average range despite glaring weaknesses
    • Extensive error descriptions that can be found on the Reading Fluency subtest
    • Extensive footnotes with clarifying information
    • Links to a variety of TILLS FREE tutorials created by the authors
    • Impressions section formulation
    • Possible ICD-10 diagnoses that can result based on TILLS assessment
    • Accommodations Section
    • Adaptive Recommendations Section
    • Maintaining Factors Section
    • Suggested Therapy Long and Short Term Goals Sampler for
      • Listening Comprehension
      • Oral Communication
      • Social Communication
      • Phonological Awareness
      • Phonics
      • Reading Fluency
      • Reading Comprehension
      • Spelling
      • Writing Conventions
      • Writing Composition
      • Reward System and Rationale
      • Expected duration of treatment
      • Prognosis
      • Therapy Discharge Recommendations

You can access it HERE in my online store.  My review of the TILLS is available HERE 

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What Makes an Independent Speech-Language-Literacy Evaluation a GOOD Evaluation?

Image result for Independent Educational EvaluationThree years ago I wrote a blog post entitled: “Special Education Disputes and Comprehensive Language Testing: What Parents, Attorneys, and Advocates Need to Know“. In it, I used  4 very different scenarios to illustrate the importance of comprehensive language evaluations for children with subtle language and learning needs.  Today I would like to expound more on that post in order to explain, what actually constitutes a good independent comprehensive assessment.

Independent evaluations, whether educational, psychological, speech and language, etc., are typically performed with a particular purpose in mind. That purpose is not to simply document the student’s strengths and needs but also to explicitly advise on solid goals and objectives or a strong treatment plan so the child could improve abilities in the affected areas of functioning.

Image result for all children can learnFor example, psychological evaluations do not simply determine the child’s full-scale IQ. Depending on the breakdown of the child’s scores, they help educators with planning for the child’s educational needs. To illustrate, let’s say that an IQ testing determined that the child is functioning in the below average range with significantly lower scores in the areas of working memory and processing speed.  Given this information professionals working with the child in the classroom and in the therapy room can plan accordingly in terms of designing an appropriate intervention which takes into the consideration the child’s cognitive challenges.

Image result for functionalSimilarly, let’s say an educational/learning testing had determined that the child exhibits difficulties in the areas of phonics, word reading, reading fluency, etc.   Such information is hugely helpful in assisting the child to receive additional reading intervention services with a focus on improving the affected areas of difficulty.

In other words, it is not nearly enough to state in the body of the report, what is wrong with the child, rather it is important to make functional recommendations on what can be done with a child in order to make the child better.

Now here it is very important to understand that accommodations and modifications, while extremely helpful for all children with learning needs, are simply not going to be as functional as actual targeted intervention goals in the affected areas, be it reading, writing, listening comprehension, etc.

Independent evaluations need to make concrete recommendation suggestions regarding best remediation practices for the child. They need to contain goals that other professionals can follow. Without this component, independent evaluations have highly limited value. Here is an example which illustrates a limited value of one such report.

Several years ago I was asked to do a comprehensive language and literacy evaluation on a fifth-grade student who was functionally illiterate. The student had already underway and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, which surprisingly enough did not draw any conclusion regarding the student’s abilities.

The neuropsychologist found that the student had an average IQ and learning difficulties across the board in numerous tested areas. Because of these findings, the neuropsychologist chose to ‘blame’ the student’s deficits on ADHD and stated that he is unable to diagnose a student with a learning disability because there were no score discrepancies on educational testing (not a scientifically backed argument).

Image result for valueNow, what is the value of such an assessment? This child’s parents have spent thousands of dollars on this assessment but in the end, they had absolutely nothing to show for it! The assessment had literally found nothing useful because the submission of such an assessment to the school setting would not have resulted in an altered and beneficial program placement for this child.

So what are the components of a good comprehensive independent evaluation? For the purpose of this particular question, I’ll stick to the subject of language and literacy evaluations, which are in my purview.

Here are the sections I include in a typical independent comprehensive language and literacy report for school-age clients. Make sure to click on the multicolored/highlighted words to learn more details via relevant past posts pertaining to this topic.

Formal Testing Results

  • This section includes the tables of all the standardized testing administered to the child

Background Information

  • This section comprehensively discusses the child’s history to date. It summarizes in meticulous detail prenatal perinatal and postnatal histories, developmental milestones acquisition, relevant medical and psychiatric histories, as well as a compilation of information regarding all previous assessments and interventions to date. This is particularly important for cases involving a change in school placement. After all, if the child had received extensive interventions in a particular school setting which were found to be ineffective to date, it is a strong indication that a different school placement may be warranted.

School Visit

  • This section is hugely important for the determination of the child’s functioning in school setting. It documents an observation one hour in length, preformed to determine whether the child is receiving free and appropriate education in school setting (whether the child is appropriately receiving relevant therapies/schooling).
    • School Visit Impressions
      • All school visits need to include a report section which discusses the observers impressions of the program, as well as their suitability to the child’s educational needs.

Adaptive Behavior

  • This section documents the child’s social communication abilities as displayed throughout testing. Was the child calm or distractible, but did the child display any socially awkward behaviors, did the child display any refusal behaviors, was there any odd conversational exchanges, did it take the child too long to answer questions, with the child displaying any word finding difficulties when speaking? All of these observations are documented in that section as a precursor to both formal as well as clinical social communication testing (see below)

Peripheral Oral Motor Exam

  • Here any orofacial anomalies get documented if needed

Voice, Fluency, Resonance and Prosody

  • This section discusses any deviations in the above, and/or documents the presence of typical functioning as commensurate with age.

Articulation and Phonology

  • Here I document the presence of typical or atypical speech patterns

Auditory Function

  • This is a section which discusses previous audiological findings, history of hearing deficits (if present), as well as overall impressions of child’s hearing throughout the assessment.

Methods of Assessment

Testing Protocols 

  • A list of all the formal tests used during the assessment

Language Processing and Listening Comprehension:

  • Detailed findings of both formal and clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to process and comprehend language

Expressive Language and Metalinguistic Abilities:

  • Detailed findings of both formal and clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to verbally express self via the effective/ineffective ability to manipulate words and sentences

Discourse Analysis

  • Detailed findings of clinical testing pertaining to the child’s ability to produce age level narratives

Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, and Verbal Reasoning:

  • This section documents formal testing results of problem-solving testing

Social Communication Abilities

Reading Assessment

  • This extensive section includes the details of both formal as well as clinical reading testing including information on the child’s phonemic awareness abilities, decoding abilities, reading fluency and reading comprehension, summarization of read information, etc.

Written Assessment

  • This section contains results of formal and clinical writing assessments including spelling as well as writing composition

IMPRESSIONS

  • At this juncture I am ready to summarize the results of my assessment findings in detail. Here I discuss the severity of the impairment as well as list the areas in which deficits have been noted.

ICD-10 Diagnoses

  • Here I list relevant to the assessment diagnoses which were revealed by the conclusion of testing

CLASSROOM PLACEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS:

  • If necessary, this section discusses recommendations for alternative classroom placement. Here I include information regarding the class size, what additional therapies the child may need to receive, the need for additional classification/services, etc.

Instructional Accommodations to Improve Information Processing

  • Here I discuss my observations pertaining to accommodations which may be beneficial to the child in the school setting

ACCOMMODATIONS VS. REMEDIATION:

  • Here, I discuss the importance of providing direct remediation services versus mere accommodations and modifications alone

Knowledge Retention Recommendations:

  • This section may also be merited at times especially with severely impaired children who may not be able to process information presented to them in longer sentences

Adaptive Recommendations:

  • This section requires what adaptive modifications with respect to the child’s physical space, session materials, etc. may be needed in order for the child to succeed

Maintaining Factors (factors contributing to the maintenance of linguistic deficits)Image result for worse

  • Cognitive
  • Sensorimotor
  • Psychosocial
  • Linguistic

SUGGESTED THERAPY GOALS

  • As mentioned before this is a hugely important section which details the students long term as well as short-term goals which were derived based on the presence of deficit areas as documented throughout the assessment report

Reward system and rationale:

  • This may be a particularly important section for students with the greater degree of impairment as here we may be able to document what type of reward/reinforcements (intrinsic/extrinsic) work to for the student to motivate him/her to complete the assessment
  • If possible, an internal and social system of reward for targeted skill achievement (fostering, intrinsic motivation to take pride in own accomplishments) is strongly recommended

Goal Termination

  • Here I discuss the expectations for goal termination. I typically recommend a contingency of 90% or above accuracy marker over a period of 3 consecutive sessions

Expected duration of treatment

  • While it is often impossible to predict the duration of treatment, certain educated guesses may be taken to determine therapy length. This is frequently determined based on how rapidly the student progresses in therapy, the extent of parental involvement as evidenced or homework as well as carryover activities and exercises at home, any additional private therapy services as well as any additional school therapy services and support (e.g., reading instruction)

Image result for prognosisPrognosis

  • Here, once again depending on the extent of severity of the students deficits, a statement of prognosis may be made (e.g., “Good but cautious due to the above maintaining factors”)

Therapy Discharge:

  • Contingent on a successful reassessment of target deficit areas.

Appendices

  • This is a section where I provide any pertinent to the assessment documents such as the results of the prescriptive spelling test (e.g., SPELL-2) or a synopsis of a particular narrative (e.g., Dr. De Soto by William Steig) so that assessment readers could compare the student’s narrative production with expected production

So now that you know, what sections I include in my independent comprehensive language and literacy evaluations, I’d love to know if there are other sections/areas that you including yours? Post your thoughts and suggestions in the comments section below

Related Posts:

  1. Special Education Disputes and Comprehensive Language Testing: What Parents, Attorneys, and Advocates Need to Know
  2. On the Limitations of Using Vocabulary Tests with School-Aged Students
  3. Updated: What Does “Their Social Skills Are Just Fine” Really Means When it Comes to Children with Language Impairment
  4. Why Developmental History Matters: On the Importance of Background Information in Speech-Language Assessments
  5. The Importance of Narrative Assessments in Speech-Language Pathology (Revised)
  6. Analyzing Discourse Abilities of Adolescents via Peer Conflict Resolution (PCR) tasks
  7. What do Auditory Memory Deficits Indicate in the Presence of Average General Language Scores?
  8. Analyzing Narratives of School-Aged Children
  9. Adolescent Assessments in Action: Informal Reading Evaluation
  10. Dear Reading Specialist, May I Ask You a Few Questions? 
  11. Test Review of CELF-5 Metalinguistics: What SLPs Need to Know
  12. Do Our Therapy Goals Make Sense or How to Create Functional Language Intervention Targets
  13. Social Communication and Describing Skills: What is the Connection? 
  14. Recommendations for Assessing Language Abilities of Verbal Children with Down Syndrome (DS)
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Free Literacy Resources for Parents and Professionals

SLPs are constantly on the lookout for good quality affordable materials in the area of literacy. However, what many clinicians may not realize is that there are massive amounts of FREE evidence-based literacy-related resources available online for their use.  These materials can be easily adapted or implemented as is, by parents, teachers, speech-language pathologists, as well as other literacy-focused professionals (e.g., tutors, etc.).

Below, I have compiled a rather modest list of my preferred resources (including a few articles) for children aged Pre-K-12 grade pertaining to the following literacy-related areas:

  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary acquisition and semantic knowledge
  • Morphological Awareness
  • Reading fluency
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Writing

Cognitive foundation for learning to read is a website which compiled numerous research citations pertaining to how children learn to read.

A Curriculum Guide for Reading Mentors is a 184-page guide for reading mentors which contains valuable resources, research, as well as lesson plans with the name of teaching children to read.

Ending the Reading Wars: Reading Acquisition From Novice to Expert  is an open-access article which provides a “comprehensive tutorial review of the science of learning to read, spanning from children’s earliest alphabetic skills through to the fluent word recognition and skilled text comprehension characteristic of expert readers.”

Teaching Reading is Rocket Science is a seminal 1999 article by Louisa Moates for the American Federation of Teachers explaining that teaching reading to children effectively is much harder than people think.

What the Research Says We Should Really be Teaching in Reading  is a 60-page handout which describes components integral to reading success.

Effective Instruction For Adolescent Struggling Readers  is a guide which explains how professionals can intervene with adolescent learners with significant reading needs.

NJ Dyslexia Handbook  is a free guide from the state of New Jersey which provides “information to educators, students, families, and community members about dyslexia, early literacy development, and the best practices for identification, instruction, and accommodation of students who have reading difficulties.”

Useful Literacy Related Videos

*M. A Rooney Foundation provides professional learning support that focuses on increasing student achievement. Their resource library contains an enormous amount of information including complete Orton-Gillingham training manuals, lesson plans, card decks, etc.

The Literacy Bug Website is a great site, dedicated to, you guessed it, all things literacy. It has an amazing wealth of resources on such topics as Five Stages of Reading Development, Stages of Literacy Developmentas well as the following compilation of newly released materials:

FLORIDA CENTER FOR READING RESEARCH   has a vast collection of materials for Grades K-5 on the topics of

  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Language and Vocabulary  
  • Comprehension 

Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL) website provides easy to use lesson plans for grades Pre-K-1

FREE Phonics Books for Parents and Teachers by Stephen Parker provide helpful step by step information for parents and teachers on how to teach synthetic phonics to children 2-10 years of age 

Free Phonics Books and Lessons  

Free Morphology Resources

Free Reading Comprehension Resources

Free Writing Resources

There you have it! My rather modest list of literacy-related FREE resources TO DATE, which I use with my clients on daily basis. Please note that I will continue to update this post periodically, as I gain knowledge of other relevant to literacy websites containing links to FREE EBP materials.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Clinical Assessment of Elementary-Aged Students Writing Abilities : Suggestions for SLPs

Image result for child writingRecently I wrote a blog post regarding how SLPs can qualitatively assess writing abilities of adolescent learners. Today due to popular demand, I am offering suggestions regarding how SLPs can assess writing abilities of early-elementary-aged students with suspected learning and literacy deficits. For the purpose of this post, I will focus on assessing writing of second-grade students since by second-grade students are expected to begin producing simple written compositions several sentences in length (CCSS).

So how can we analyze the writing samples of young learners? For starters, it is important to know what the typical writing expectations look like for 2nd-grade students. Here’s is a sampling of typical expectations for second graders as per several sources (e.g., CCSS, Reading Rockets, Time4Writing, etc.)

  • With respect to penmanship, students are expected to write legibly.
  • With respect to grammar, students are expected to identify and correctly use basic parts of speech such as nouns and verbs.
  • With respect to sentence structure students are expected to distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences as well as use correct subject/verb/noun/pronoun agreements and correct verb tenses in simple and compound sentences.
  • With respect to punctuation, students are expected to use periods correctly at the end of sentences. They are expected to use commas in sentences with dates and items in a series.
  • With respect to capitalization, students are expected to capitalize proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences, letter salutations, months and days of the week, as well as titles and initials of people.
  • With respect to spelling, students are expected to spell CVC (e.g., tap), CVCe (e.g., tape), as well as CCVC words (e.g., trap), high frequency regular and irregular spelled words (e.g., were, said, why, etc),  basic inflectional endings (e.g., –ed, -ing, -s, etc), as well as to recognize select orthographic patterns and rules (e.g., when to spell /k/ or /c/ in CVC and CVCe word, how to drop one vowel (e.g., /y/) and replace it with another /i/, etc.)

Now let’s apply the above expectations to a writing sample of a 2nd-grade student whose parents are concerned with her writing abilities in addition to other language and learning concerns. This student was provided with a  typical second grade writing prompt: “Imagine you are going to the North Pole. How are you going to get there? What would you bring with you? You have 15 minutes to write your story. Please make your story at least 4 sentences long.

The following is the transcribed story produced by her. “I am going in the north pole. I am going to bring food my mom toy’s stoft (stuffed) animals. I am so icsited (excited). So we are going in a box. We are going to go done (down) the stars (stairs) with the box and wate (wait) intile (until) the male (mail) is hear (here).”

Analysis: The student’s written composition content (thought formulation and elaboration) was judged to be impaired for her grade level.  According to the CCSS, 2d grade students are expected to ‘”write narratives in which recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.” However, the above narrative sample by no means satisfies this requirement.  The student’s writing was excessively misspelled, as well as lacked organization and clarity of message.  While portions of her narrative appropriately addressed the question with respect to whom and what she was going to bring on her travels, her narrative quickly lost coherence by her 4th sentence, when she wrote: “So we are going in a box” with further elaborations regarding what she meant by that sentence.  Second-grade students are expected to engage in basic editing and revision of their work. This student only took four minutes to compose the above-written sample and as such had more than adequate amount of time to review the question as well as her response for spelling and punctuation errors as well as for clarity of message, which she did not do. Furthermore, despite being provided with a written prompt which contained the correct capitalization of a place: “North Pole”, the student was not observed to capitalize it in her writing, which indicates ongoing executive function difficulties with the respect to proofreading and attention to details.  

Impressions: Clinical assessment of the student’s writing revealed difficulties in the areas of spelling, capitalization, message clarity as well as lack of basic proofreading and editing, which require therapeutic intervention.   

Now let us select a few writing goals for this student.

Long-Term Goals:  Student will improve her writing abilities for academic purposes.

  • Short-Term Goals
  1. Student will label parts of speech (e.g., adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc.)  in compound sentences.
  2. Student will use declarative and interrogative sentence types for story composition purposes
  3. Student will correctly use past, present, and future verb tenses during writing tasks.
  4. Student will use basic punctuation at the sentence level (e.g., commas, periods, and apostrophes in singular possessives, etc.).
  5. Student will use basic capitalization at the sentence level (e.g., capitalize proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences, months and days of the week, etc.).
  6. Student will proofread her work via reading aloud for clarity
  7. Student will edit her work for correct grammar, punctuation, and capitalization

Notice the above does not contain any spelling goals. That is because given the complexity of her spelling profile I prefer to tackle her spelling needs in a separate post, which discusses spelling development, assessment, as well as intervention recommendations for students with spelling deficits.

There you have it. A quick and easy qualitative writing assessment for elementary-aged students which can help determine the extent of the student’s writing difficulties as well as establish a few writing remediation targets for intervention purposes.

Using a different type of writing assessment with your students? Please share the details below so we can all benefit from each others knowledge of assessment strategies.