Posted on

Using Picture Books to Teach Children That It’s OK to Make Mistakes and Take Risks

Image result for children making mistakesThose of you who follow my blog know that in my primary job as an SLP working for a psychiatric hospital, I assess and treat language and literacy impaired students with significant emotional and behavioral disturbances. I often do so via the aid of picture books (click HERE for my previous posts on this topic) dealing with a variety of social communication topics.

Two themes that consistently come up in my therapy sessions are taking risks and making mistakes. Many of my students are very afraid of taking risks and are terrified of trying new things whether educationally or socially. To address the issue of taking risks and changing one’s mindset I like using two books by Julia Cook Bubble Gum Brain’ as well as ‘Don’t Be Afraid to Drop’.

Image result for bubble gum brainBubble Gum Brain’ (video) is a book about two kids: Bubble Gum Brain and Brick Brain, with two drastically different frames of mind. Bubble Gum Brain is a fun fun-loving adventure-taker who makes loads of mistakes, whether falling off a unicycle, striking out at baseball, or playing the harmonica. Even though those things are very difficult, he is not concerned about making mistakes because he realizes that by persevering and not giving up he is learning new things and actually having fun in the process. In contrast, Brick Brain is convinced that “things are just fine the way they are” and trying new things is hard. Brick Brain is hugely reluctant to take any chances in sports, at play, and in life, and is frequently complaining that things are “way too hard”. Then Bubble Gum Brain shows Brick Brain that all he needs to do is to peel off his wrapper, in order to see that he also has a Bubble Gum Brain. After that Brick Brain starts to realize that school and life can be a lot more palatable and even fun even when one is making mistakes.

Book Buddy for Bubble Gum Brain by Julia CookMy favorite part about this book is teaching my students to understand the Power of Yet (“You can’t figure this out …yet”), and explaining to them that with hard work and perseverance they can accomplish just about anything they set their mind to, including the mastery of their language and literacy goals! I teach them to take chances by trying to go just a little bit farther each time and pushing themselves just a tiny bit more in each of their therapy sessions. In addition to asking my students critical thinking questions regarding this text, I at times use a FREE book companion from Technology Tidbits on TPT, to supplement my therapy sessions. It contains a lesson plan overview, a book quiz, a sorting activity, and a few other resources which can wonderfully supplement the session for this book.

Related image

Similar to the above,’Don’t be Afraid to Drop’ (video) is a book about a raindrop who is incredibly comfortable living in his cloud with his friends. He is having a very difficult time letting go of the comforts of his cloud as he doesn’t like change or wants to take a risk. However, with his father’s encouragement, the raindrop is eventually persuaded to leave his comfort zone and jump to the ground to see what he is missing. I really like the positive message in this book regarding welcoming change as well as giving back. “You can have it silver you might end up – I promise, you’ll be just fine you will land where you are needed.” By the end of the book, the raindrop realizes that “dropping” had helped him to grow; that change is an ultimately positive thing; and that giving to others (e.g., watering a flower) helps us all grow!

To continue, a considerable number of my students not only both loath (unwilling, reluctant) and loathe (hate) to make mistakes and be perceived as wrong, but will react in some pretty significant ways when those mistakes occur (e.g., climb under the table and refuse to come out, throw a tantrum and refuse to attend therapy sessions, etc.). To teach my students that mistakes are actually beneficial for learning I like to use books such as ‘The Girl Who Never Made Mistakes!’ by Mark Pett and Gary Rubenstein and ‘Your Fantastic, Elastic Brain‘ by  JoAnn Deak. 

11526654Beatrice Bottomwell is ‘The Girl Who Never Made Mistakes!’ (video) This nine-year-old is perfect in every way, to the point that when she leaves the house she is greeted by her fans, who don’t even know her real name because she’s known to everyone in town as “The Girl Who Never Made Mistakes”.  Beatrice never forgets her math homework, never wears mismatched socks, and has won her school’s talent show by doing her juggling act for three years in a row.  Then one day during cooking class, Beatrice makes an ‘almost mistake’ as she slips on a piece of rhubarb while carrying eggs from the fridge. Even though she manages to catch all the eggs, Beatrice becomes highly preoccupied with her ‘almost mistake’. In fact, she is so perturbed by it that she doesn’t want to ice skate with her friends and can barely eat her food. Later that evening, during the school’s talent show Beatrice’s preoccupation with her ‘almost mistake’ causes her to make a spectacularly huge mistake, which results in her being soaked in water, covered in pepper, with a hamster on her head.  Luckily, rather than getting spectacularly upset, Beatrice comes to a realization that not only do mistakes happen but sometimes they can be pretty hilarious! So rather than crying or getting upset she begins to their end the audience joins in until soon, no can’t quite remember why they were everlasting. This serves as a catalyst for Beatrice not only to have peace of mind but also to mix-and-match her wardrobe choices, make unusual lunches, as well as do plenty of falling during ice-skating. This also precipitates townfolk to finally start calling Beatrice by her real name rather than “The Girl Who Never Made Mistakes”.

Prior to reading this book, I discuss with my students the concept of mistakes, how they feel about when they make mistakes, whether they know people who have never made mistakes, as well as when, do they think it is ok to make mistakes. I spend quite a bit of time on discussing text embedded vocabulary words as well as idiomatic expressions (e.g., ‘stunned’, ‘wobbled’, ‘didn’t miss a beat’, ‘auditorium was packed’, etc.). There is a wealth of amazing FREE materials available to complement this book.  They include but are not limited to: a book companionBloom taxonomy leveled questions for grades Pre-K-5th, as well as an educators guide from the book’s two authors.

Image result for YOUR FANTASTIC ELASTIC BRAIN: STRETCH IT, SHAPE ITIn contrast to all the above books, ‘Your Fantastic, Elastic Brain‘ (video) is a non-fiction book with a focus on describing brain structures and their functions in a very kid-friendly way. The author, who is a psychologist by trade, does a really great job at explaining to children that the brain controls everything we do. She describes the functions of such structures as the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, as well as neurons in very child-friendly terms.  She explains the importance of practicing to get better at doing something, as well as emphasizes that things “get easier when you keep trying”.   I love the stress on the fact that “making mistakes is one of the best ways your brain learns and grows,” and that “if you aren’t willing to risk being wrong, you want to take the chances that S-T-R-E-T-C-H your elastic brain“. In addition to already mentioned science-related words identifying select structures of the brain, the book offers other impressive vocabulary choices such as balance, movement, electrical, signal, cells, neurosculptor, courage, molds, etc.  Beyond understanding why it’s okay to make mistakes, my students feel “really grown-up” because they get the unique opportunity to discuss parts of the brain “even kids in high school don’t know,” as one of my students had put it.

The publishers of the book ‘Little Pickle Press’ have a wonderful 16-page, free lesson plan for educators, intended for children ranging in ages from pre-K through third grade (although it can be easily used with older students with language difficulties as well as intellectual impairment). It is chock-full of educational activities, additional resources, as well as questions which facilitate the growth of meta-cognitive and metalinguistic abilities in elementary aged children. I also use Ned the Neuron Videos to complement book reading as well as book activities. Finally, a handy poster associated with the book can be downloaded HERE.

Image result for Thanks for the Feedback, I thinkIn conjunction with teaching children that it is perfectly acceptable to make mistakes I also attempt to ensure that they react appropriately when provided with constructive feedback.  For the purpose, I like to utilize a book by Julia Cook, entitled: ‘Thanks for the Feedback, I think‘ (video).  While this book primarily deals with helping children  appropriately respond to compliments, there are still several instances in the book when RJ, the main character receives constructive feedback aimed at helping him to get better at certain things such as playing soccer, keeping a lower voice in class, staying in his seat, as well as dawdling less during assignments. One complimentary activity I like to do in conjunction with the book reading is to have my students watch a variety of YouTube videos, in which individuals are receiving some form of feedback from others. It could be anything from the ‘American Idol’ and ‘Voice’ auditions to ‘Chopped’ judges providing feedback to chefs. After watching the clips I ask the students their impressions on how feedback was received by the participants and how did they figure out whether the participants reacted well/poorly to the provided feedback.

Image result for the judgemental flowerTo cap off our discussion on taking risks, making mistakes, and accepting feedback, I also wanted to give an honorary mention to yet another book by the prolific Julia Cook entitled, ‘The Judgmental Flower‘. It teaches children the value of being non-judgemental and being accepting of others’ differences. Because I work with children with significant emotional and behavioral difficulties, this book comes especially handy, when my students are attempting to be quite judgmentally rude to each other. I use this book to teach them to embrace and learn from each other’s differences and emphasize the fact that the world would be very boring is all of us were exactly the same. I also spend some time exploring the notion of “growing in the right direction” as well as on explaining the concept of diversity. I occasionally supplement the book reading with select FREE Activities which can be found HERE and HERE.

Of course, it is important to note that while I use the above books to improve my students’ social communication and executive function abilities, I do so by creating a variety of goals which explicitly target my students’ verbal expression, as well as reading fluency, reading comprehension, spelling, and writing skills. These include answering concrete and abstract questions, defining context embedded vocabulary words, decoding words in books, answering reading comprehension questions given visual support, as well as formulating written sentences based on select words identified in the stories, utilizing appropriate punctuation and capitalization.

Image result for moreSo now that you know what type of books I use in my therapy sessions with a focus on taking risks, making mistakes, accepting feedback, as well as being nonjudgmental, I’d love to expand my list by learning about new titles I am not yet aware of from you. Feel free to comments below regarding what other books you are using to address these themes in therapy.

Helpful Smart Speech Therapy Resources:

Posted on

Speech, Language, and Literacy Fun with Helen Lester’s Picture Books

Picture books are absolutely wonderful for both assessment and treatment purposes! They are terrific as narrative elicitation aids for children of various ages, ranging from pre-K through fourth grade.  They are amazing treatment aids for addressing a variety of speech, language, and literacy goals that extend far beyond narrative production.

There are numerous children books authors whom I absolutely adore (e.g., Karma Wilson, Keiko Kasza, Jez Alborough, M. Christina Butler, etc.). Today I wanted to describe how I implement books by Helen Lester into my treatment sessions with elementary aged children. (For information on how I use her books: “Pookins Gets Her Way” and “A Porcupine Named Fluffy” for narrative elicitation purposes click HERE.)

It is important to note that while Ms. Lester’s books are intended for younger children (4-7 years; pre-K-3rd grade), older children (~10 years of age) with significant language and learning difficulties and/or intellectual disabilities have enjoyed working with them and have significantly benefited from reading/listening to them.

Two reasons why I love using Ms. Lester’s books are versatility and wealth of social themes. To illustrate, “Hooway for Wodney Wat” and “Wodney Wat’s Wobot” are two books about a shy rat who cannot pronounce his ‘r’ sounds. Wodney is hugely embarrassed by that fact, and since there are no speech-language pathologists in Rodentia-land, Wodney spends his recess, hiding inside his jacket, trying to be as inconspicuous as possible. The arrival of a bullying, Miss-know-it-all, Camilla Capybara, brings some unexpected changes into the school’s dynamic, as well as provides Wodney with a very welcome opportunity to shine socially.

Image result for wodney wobotSpeech Production: Not only is there a phenomenal opportunity to use this book with children struggling with /r/ sound production, but it’s also heavily laden with a plethora of /r/ words in a variety of word positions (e.g., rodeo, robot, contraption, barrel, terrific, fur, prickled, bigger, fear, classroom, smarter, sure, etc.).

Language: There are numerous language goals that could be formulated based on Helen Lester’s books including answering concrete and abstract listening comprehension questions, defining story-embedded vocabulary words, producing word associations, synonyms, antonyms, and multiple meaning words (semantic awareness), formulating compound and complex sentences (syntax), answering predicting and inferencing questions (critical thinking), gauging moods and identifying emotional reactions of characters (social communication), assuming characters’ perspectives and frame of reference (social cognition, theory of mind, etc.), identifying main ideas in text (Gestalt processing) and much, much more.

  • Select Highlights:
    • VocabularyFor the ages/grades that there’ve written for (4-7 years; pre-K-3rd grade), Ms. Lester’s books are laden with a wealth of sophisticated vocabulary words such a: curtsy, contraption, trembled, dreary, shudder, varmint, fashionable, rodent, rattled, shenanigans, chanting, surgical, plunked, occasion, exception, etc.
    • Word Play:  Ms. Lester infuses a great deal of humor and wit in her books. Just look at the names of her characters in “A Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing”, which are: Ewetopia, Ewecalyptus, Ewetensil, Heyewe, Rambunctious, Ramshackle, and Ramplestiltskin.  Her ovine characters live in Pastureland and attend Woolyones’ Costume Balls while her porcine characters eat in a trough-a-teria.  
    • Social Communication: Many of Ms. Lester’s book themes focus on the celebration of neurodiversity (e.g., “Tacky the Penguin”), learning valuable life lessons (e.g., “Me First”), addressing one’s fears (e.g., “Something Might Happen”) and feeling uncomfortable in own skin (e.g., “A Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing”), etc.

Literacy: Similar to the above, numerous literacy goals can be formulated based on these books. These include but are not limited to, goals targeting phonological (e.g., rhyming words, counting syllables in words, etc.) and phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency and comprehension, spelling, as well as the composition of written responses to story questions.

  • Image result for princess penelope's parrotSelect Highlights:
    • Phonics: Students can practice reading words containing a variety of syllable shapes as well as decode low-frequency words containing a variety of consonantal clusters (Examples from “Princess Penelope’s Parrot” are:  hissed, parrot, buzzard, horribly, flicked, plucked, field,  flapped, silence, Percival, velvet, cloak, caviar, clippy-clopped, poofiest, impressed, expensive, galloping, gulped, bouquet, squawked, etc.)
    • Morphology: There’s a terrific opportunity to introduce a discussion on roots and affixes when using Ms. Lester’s books to discuss how select prefixes and suffixes (e.g., ante-, -able, -ive, -ion, etc.) can significantly increase word sophistication of numerous root words (e.g., impressive, exception, etc.)
    • Spelling: There is a terrific opportunity for children to practice spelling numerous spelling patterns to solidify their spelling abilities, including -ee-, -ea-, -ou-,-oo-, -oa-, -ui-, -ck, -tt-, -rr-, -ss-, -cc-, etc.

When working with picture books, I typically spend numerous sessions working with the same book. That is because research indicates that language disordered children require 36 exposures  (as compared with 12 exposures for typically developing children) to learn new words via interactive book reading (Storkel et al, 2016). As such, I discuss vocabulary words before, during, and after the book reading, by asking the children to both repeatedly define and then use selected words in sentences so the students can solidify their knowledge of these words.

I also spent quite a bit of time on macrostructure, particularly on the identification and definitions of story grammar elements as well as having the student match the story grammar picture cards to various portions of the book.

When working with picture books, here are some verbal prompts that I provide to the students with a focus on story Characters and Setting

  • Who are the characters in this story?
  • Where is the setting in this story?
  • Are there multiple settings in this story?
  • What are some emotions the characters experience throughout this story?
  • When did they experience these emotions in the story?
  • How do you think this character is feeling when ____?
    • Why?
    • How do you know?
  • What do you think this character is thinking?
    • Why?
    • How do you know?
  • What are some actions the characters performed throughout the story?
  • What were the results of some of those actions?

Here is a sampling of verbal prompts I provide to the students with a focus on story Sequencing 

  • What happened at the beginning of the story?
    • What words can we use to start a story?
  • What happened next?
  • What happened after that?
  • What happened last?
  • How do we end a story?
  • What was the problem in the story?
  • Was there more than one problem?
    • What happened?
    • Who solved it?
    • How did s/he solve it?
  • Was there adventure in the story?
    • If yes, how did it start and end?

Here is a sampling of verbal prompts I provide to the students with a focus on Critical Thinking 

  • How are these two characters alike/different? (compare/contrast)
  • What do you think will happen next? (predicting)
  •  Why/How do you think ___ happened (inferencing)
  • Why shouldn’t you, couldn’t s/he ____ ? (answering negative questions)
  • What do you thing s/he must do to ______? (problem-solving)
  • How would you solve his problem? (determining solutions)
  • Why is your solution ______ a good solution? (providing justifications)

Image result for tacky penguinHere is a small sampling of verbal prompts I provide to the students with a focus on Social Communication and Social Cognition 

  • How would you feel if ____?
  • What is his/her mood at ____ point in the story?
    • How do you know?
  • What is his/her reaction to the ____?
    • How do you know?
  • How does it make you feel that s/he are _____?
  • Can you tell me two completely different results of this character’s actions?
  • What could you say to this character to make him/her feel better?
    • Why?
  • What would you think if?

At times, I also use Ms. Lester’s guide for the following books: ‘It Wasn’t My Fault’, ‘Listen, Buddy’, ‘Me First’, and ‘A Porcupine Named Fluffy‘ to supplement my therapy sessions goals. It provides additional helpful ideas and suggestions on how her books can be further used in both therapy room as well as the classroom.

Finally, one of the major reasons why I really like Ms. Lester’s books is because some of them are ‘art imitating life’ and do not necessarily end up in a ‘traditional’ happily ever after. To, illustrate, “Princess Penelope’s Parrot” is a book about a spoiled princess who cannot get her new parrot to talk, even after threatening it and calling it insulting names. When Prince Percival comes courting, the parrot takes his hilarious revenge on Princess Penelope, and the parrot and Prince Percival do end up living happily ever after. However, Princess Penelope quickly gets over her embarrassment and goes back to her unrepentantly spoiled way of acting.

There you have it! Just a few of my many reasons why I adore using Helen Lester’s books for language and literacy treatment purposes. How about you? Do you use any of her books for assessment and treatment purposes? If yes, comment below which ones you use and why do you use them?

References:

Helpful Related Smart Speech Therapy Resources: 

 

Posted on

Do Our Therapy Goals Make Sense or How to Create Functional Language Intervention Targets

In the past several years, I wrote a series of posts on the topic of improving clinical practices in speech-language pathology.  Some of these posts were based on my clinical experience as backed by research,  while others summarized key point from articles written by prominent colleagues in our field such as Dr. Alan KamhiDr.  David DeBonnisDr. Andrew Vermiglio, etc.

In the past, I have highlighted several articles from the 2014 LSHSS clinical forum entitled: Improving Clinical Practice. Today I would like to explicitly summarize another relevant article written by Dr. Wallach in 2014, entitled “Improving Clinical Practice: A School-Age and School-Based Perspective“, which discusses how to change the “persistence of traditional practices” in order to make our language interventions more functional and meaningful for students with language learning difficulties.

Image result for geraldine wallachDr. Wallach begins her article by describing 3  fairly typical to the schools’ scenarios.  In the first one,  a group of second graders with narrative retelling goals are working on a sequencing activity (“First the soup is on the counter, next it is opened, then it is cooked on the stove, last it is put in a bowl and ready to eat.”).

In the second scenario,  a group of fourth graders are working on following directions presented to them by the clinician (“Pick up the red triangle before you touch the large, green circle.”)

Image result for ambiguous newspaper headlinesIn  the third scenario,  a group of middle schoolers  are working on interpreting  newspaper headlines (“Jazz Helps Lakers Become Mellow in Victory.”)

Dr. Wallach then poses several overarching questions:

  • Do these goals make sense in the current context of research pertaining to language, learning, and literacy?
  • ‘Are the targets relevant to language and academic contexts beyond the “speech room” (i.e., are the choices, curriculum, and classroom relevant)?’
  • ‘Are they relevant to language learning in general?’
  • ‘Is the intervention’s focus encouraging performance (short-term learning that is context-bound) or long-term and context-independent learning?’ (p. 128)

She then delves deeper into where these goals come from as well as presents some suggestions regarding how these goals could be altered in order to make them more functional.

She begins by explaining that labeling SLP  provided school-based services as “speech” “creates artificial barriers, inaccurate perceptions, and inappropriate intervention recommendations that exacerbate an already complex situation, that is, meeting the language learning and literacy needs of students across a changing landscape of required knowledge and skills needed to succeed academically.” (128)

From there,  she explains why targets in the first two scenarios are inaccurate and not functional.  She explains that while working on improving narrative abilities is functional,  working on isolated sequencing abilities is not functional since in the context of her present scenario the child was not retelling an actual story. Furthermore, ‘the clinician’s focus on sequencing as an underlying skill comes from sources that are unknown’ and ‘the “transfer” to producing and comprehending temporal and causal narratives from the soup scenario is an assumption that research fails to support” (128) She adds, that  “Duke and Pearson (2008/2009) mirror these notions when they state that the “transfer [of taught skills and strategies] decreases as a function of distance from the original information domain” (p. 113).”    Then, of course, there is the usage of “expository text (i.e., a sequential text) rather than narrative text,”  further indicating that the goal is not functionally transferable.  The second graders are receiving a message that we are working on storytelling skills,  when in reality that is not what is taking place in the session.

To balance the above criticism, Dr. Wallach does describe a number of positive elements involved in what her fictional clinician in her scenario is doing: (e.g, using expository text knowledge, talking about language, etc.), but she also asks: (1) Is the activity developmentally appropriate? and (2) Are the metalinguistic task aspects too complex for children that age? (129).

Now, let’s move on to multiple step commands, a persistent intervention meme, created because our students have difficulty understanding instructions, paying attention in class, as well as processing and completing classroom assignments.

The problem is that the processing of multistep directions is influenced by a number of contextual, semantic, and linguistic factors.  By far, not all multistep directions are created equal. Some are far more contextually related and semantically constrained than others (e.g., “After you open the book, turn to page 120” vs. “Pick up the red triangle before you touch the large, green circle.”) (p. 129). Consequently, “following directions” is not a simple task of “memorizing the steps”, rather it is a complex process which involves activation of available semantic and syntactic knowledge, comprehension of sentences with a variety of clauses, as well as numerous other linguistic factors.

Unfortunately, the provision of decontextualized directions will not meaningfully assist the students with comprehension of school work and navigation of the classroom environment. As such, rather than teaching the students multiple step directions which will not meaningfully transfer to other settings it may be far more appropriate to teach the students how to request clarification from their speakers in order to break up complex instructions into manageable chunks of information.

In contrast, the goals and procedures in the 3rd scenario (see pgs. 127-128 for full details ) are actually supported by research in developmental disorders.  The SLP is helping students to be actively involved in language by activating their background knowledge, use new strategies, reduce competing resources, heighten the students’ metalinguistic abilities, as well as incorporating aspects of both language and literacy into sessions, making her intervention highly relevant to the curriculum.

Dr. Wallach then moves on to provide constructive suggestions regarding how intervention services can be improved in the school setting. This includes: “(a) creating intervention goals that are knowledge-based and help students connect known and new information; (b) balancing content knowledge and awareness of text structure in functional, authentic tasks that optimize long-term retention and transfer across grades and content-area subjects; and (c) matching students’ language goals and objectives to the “outside world” of curricular and classroom contexts.” (p. 130)

First, “research suggests that engaging students in prior knowledge activities increases the comprehension and retention of information” (p. 130). In other words, “when too much is new, comprehension and retention suffer; something has to “give” or be modified to facilitate learning” (p. 130).  She suggests using a familiar high-interest topic to teach a discrete amount of new information.  Here, the role of background knowledge is hugely important when it comes to learning. “Engaging students in prior knowledge activities that include questioning and other meaning-based strategies encourage them to use and express what they do know, talk about what they need to know and become more actively involved in interacting with spoken and written text (Wallach et al., 2014)” (p. 131).

To illustrate, Dr. Wallach provides an example from a ninth-grade science textbook, laden with complex information. She then explains how to “use of evidence-based strategies including self-questioning and clinician-led discussions to guide students” in better understanding the material via use of various frameworks (e.g., K-W-L) (p. 131). She also emphasizes how within a collaborative framework SLPs can focus on aspects of text structure to ask relevant questions about content.

From there she segues into a fifth-grade history text and explains that  “No kit or program from the hundreds that appear in ASHA Convention exhibit halls year after year will come to our rescue” (131), As such, SLPs need to teach their clients both macro (text organization) and micro (syntax, morphology, etc.) components of language so they could successfully navigate complex texts. A number of researchers (e.g., A. Kamhi, C. Scott, M. Nippold, B. Ehren, etc.) have highlighted the fact that our middle school and high school students lack the comprehension of complex morphosyntax. Hence, explicitly teaching it to out students will significantly improve both our clinical practice and their academic outcomes. Here, Dr. Wallach also recommends the work of “McKeown and her colleagues (e.g., Beck, McKeown, & Worthy, 1995McKeown et al., 2009McKeown, Beck, Sinatra, & Loxterman, 1992) when trying to understand the complex interaction between content and structure knowledge.” (p. 132)

After that Dr. Wallach segues into a discussion on how our clients’ language goals can be better aligned with the academic curricular demands. She states that SLPs need to delve deeper (or at all) into disciplinary literacy (teaching our students subject-specific comprehension and vocabulary). Here, collaboration with content-area teachers is very important. “For example, science involves many technical terms and definitions and requires clear and concise cause and effect thinking (Fang, 2004Halliday, 1993). “The noun phrases [in science texts] contain a large quantity of information that in more commonsense language of everyday life would require several sentences to express” (Fang, 2012, p. 24). ” (132). “Alternatively, social studies involves being able to put events into a context, comparing sources, and understanding the biases of the writer. Unlike science, authorship is important in history.” (132)

Dr. Wallach suggests a number of questions clinicians can ask selves about our students when determining therapy targets:

  1. Can they handle complex syntactic forms that are more common in written language than spoken language?
  2. Do they have an understanding of word derivations?
  3. Do our students know how to write a compare and contrast expository piece?
  4. Are they able to evaluate sources information?
  5. Do they use prior knowledge and experience to help them comprehend new information?

She then offers SLPs valuable ideas on how to create a thoughtful balance between general and subject-specific language targets (see pg 133 for complete details).

Dr. Wallach concludes her article with the following points.

  • Students with language learning disabilities are at a disadvantage in school due to having reduced/limited background knowledge and language proficiency as compared to typically developing peers. Hence “school-based SLPs must consider ways that students’ language abilities influence and interact with their academic success (Wallach et al., 2014). Our intervention should be seen as developing a set of language initiatives focused toward content-area learning (A. S. Bashir, personal communication, 2012; Wallach et al., 2009). ” 
  • Staying focused on the continuum of change across the grades is an important aspect of clinical practice in the school years. Likewise, as suggested by many authors, connecting our preschool endeavors to the horizon of school-age demands underpins our work over time
  • As we look to changes in service delivery models in schools including research that supports response-to-intervention (RtI) models (e.g., Wixson, Lipson, & Valencia, 2014), we can be optimistic that less relevant and nonfunctional practices will die natural deaths.” (pgs. 133-134)

There you have it! Numerous practical suggestions as well as functional clarifications from Dr. Wallach so SLPs can improve their treatment practices with school-aged children.  And for more information, I highly recommend reading the other articles in the same clinical forum, all of which possess highly practical and relevant ideas for therapeutic implementation.

They include:

References:

  • Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Worthy, J. (1995). Giving text a voice can improve students’ understanding. Reading Research Quarterly30, 220–238.
  • Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2008/2009). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. Journal of Education189, 107–122.
  • Fang, Z. (2004). Scientific literacy: A systematic functional linguistics perspective. Science Education89, 335–347. 
  • Fang, Z. (2012). Language correlates of disciplinary literacy. Topics in Language Disorders32, 19–34. 
  • Halliday, M. A. K. (1993). Some grammatical problems in scientific English. In Halliday, M. A. K., & Martin, J. R. (Eds.), Writing science: Literacy and discursive power (pp. 69–85). London, England: Falmer.
  • McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. K. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly44, 218–253. 
  • McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., Sinatra, G. M., & Loxterman, J. A. (1992). The contribution of prior knowledge and coherent text to comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly27, 79–93.
  • Wallach, G. P., Charlton, S. J., & Christie, J. (2009). Making a broader case for the narrow view? Where to begin? Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools40, 201–211. 
  • Wallach, G.P. (2014). Improving clinical practice: A school-age and school-based perspective. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45, 127-136
  • Wallach, G.P., Charlton, S., & Christie Bartholomew, J. (2014). The spoken-written comprehension connection: Constructive intervention strategies. In C.A. Stone, E.R. Silliman, B.J. Ehren, & G.P. Wallach (Eds). Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (pp. 485-501). NY: Guilford Press.
  • Wixson, K. K., Lipson, M. Y., & Valencia, S. W. (2014). Response to intervention for teaching and learning in language and literacy. InStone, C. A., Silliman, E. R., Ehren, B. J., & Wallach, G. P. (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 637–653). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Helpful Social Media Resources:

SLPs for Evidence-Based Practice